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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and age-adjusted associations with BMI growth and BMI at age 10 years in children enrolled in the longitudinal Children’s Health Studya

From: Longitudinal associations of in utero and early life near-roadway air pollution with trajectories of childhood body mass index

Characteristic n (%)b Associations with BMI growthc (95% CI) Associations with BMI at Age 10 yearsc (95% CI)
Overweight/Obesity Statusd
 Normal 1651 (71.2) reference reference
 Overweight 320 (13.8) 0.4 (0.3, 0.5) 4.1 (3.8, 4.5)
 Obese 347 (15.0) 0.7 (0.7,0.8) 9.0 (8.6, 9.3)
Sex
 Female 1145 (49.4) reference reference
 Male 1173 (50.6) 0.06 (0.004, 0.1) 0.3 (−0.06, 0.7)
Race/Ethnicity
 White 771 (33.3) reference reference
 Hispanic 1290 (55.7) 0.3 (0.2, 0.4) 1.9 (1.6, 2.3)
 Black 72 (3.1) 0.2 (−0.02, 0.3) 1.2 (0.1, 2.2)
 Asian/Pacific Islander 67 (2.9) 0.2 (−0.006, 0.4) 0.9 (−0.2, 2.0)
 Other 114 (4.9) 0.2 (0.04, 0.3) 0.7 (−0.2, 1.5)
Parental Education
 Less than high school 410 (18.4) reference reference
 High school 430 (19.3) −0.2 (− 0.3, − 0.06) −1.0 (−1.6, − 0.5)
 Above high school 1389 (62.3) −0.3 (− 0.4, − 0.2) −2.0 (−2.4, − 1.4)
Spanish Questionnairee
 No 1818 (78.4) reference reference
 Yes 500 (21.6) 0.2 (0.2, 0.3) 1.7 (1.3, 2.1)
Self-Reported Premature Birth
 No 2003 (88.9) reference reference
 Yes 251 (11.1) −0.01 (− 0.1, 0.08) −0.6 (− 1.1, 0.02)
Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy
 No 2083 (92.7) reference reference
 Yes 164 (7.3) −0.01 (− 0.1, 0.1) − 0.5 (− 1.2, 0.2)
Residential Second-Hand Smokef
 No 2110 (93.2) reference reference
 Yes, child is home 110 (4.9) 0.1 (0.02, 0.2) 0.3 (0.07, 0.6)
 Yes, child is not home 44 (1.9) 0.1 (−0.04, 0.2) 0.2 (− 0.2, 0.5)
Lifetime History of Asthma
 No 1928 (85.1) reference reference
 Yes 338 (14.9) −0.04 (− 0.1, 0.008) 0.09 (− 0.08, 0.2)
Organized Team Sportg
 No 1141 (57.8) reference reference
 Yes 832 (42.2) −0.08 (− 0.1, − 0.04) −0.2 (− 0.3, − 0.09)
  1. aThis analysis includes a subset of the Children’s Health Study participants who had available NRAP exposure data for in utero or first year of life periods, at least two measures of BMI during study follow up period, completed a baseline questionnaire, and had moved homes at least once before study enrollment
  2. bFirst observation of participant with NRAP exposures (n = 2318); variable denominators may differ due to missing values.
  3. cAge-adjusted association for each characteristic with BMI growth over study follow up period and attained BMI at age 10 years
  4. dOverweight/ Obesity status: Normal is <85th percentile of age-, sex-specific BMI using 2000 CDC growth chart, overweight is 85-95th percentile of age-, sex-specific BMI, obese is ≥95th percentile of age-, sex- specific BMI.
  5. eSpanish Questionnaire is if parent filled out baseline questionnaire in Spanish and serves as a surrogate measure for recent immigration.
  6. f Residential second-hand smoke is if anyone living in the child’s home smokes daily inside the home.
  7. gOrganized team sport is if the child played outdoors in any organized team sport at least twice a week during the past year