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Table 2 Summary of Neonicotinoid Concentrations by Major Commodity,1999–2015

From: Trends in neonicotinoid pesticide residues in food and water in the United States, 1999–2015

Neonicotinoid Major Commod Total N N > LOD Detect Freq % Mean Conca (ppm) Min Conc (ppm) Max Conc (ppm) Commodity with max conc (year, domestic or import and country of origin)
Acetamiprid Fruits 33,728 4514 13.38 0.0043 0.001 1.5 Raspberries(2013, domestic)
Vegetables 49,987 1607 3.21 0.0011 0.001 1.6 Greens, Kale(2007, domestic); Spinach(2009, domestic, organic)
Meat 5468 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 4480 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 2580 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 315 0 0 0 0 0  
Clothianidin Fruits 34,721 333 0.96 0.0004 0.0013 0.51 Grapes(2015, domestic)
Vegetables 43,992 1094 2.49 0.0005 0.0025 0.38 Spinach(2015, domestic)
Meat 3454 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 2203 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 6384 1 0.02 0 0.0028 0.0028 Sweet Corn, Frozen(2014, domestic)
Nuts 315 0 0 0 0 0  
Dinotefuran Fruits 28,783 187 0.65 0.0003 0.004 0.35 Grapes(2009, domestic)
Vegetables 40,198 708 1.76 0.0009 0.004 3.00 Cherry Tomatoes(2012, domestic)
Meat 2920 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 2996 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 2580 3 0.12 0 0.037 0.049 Rice(2014, domestic, organic)
Nuts 315 0 0 0 0 0  
Flonicamid Fruits 26,455 271 1.02 0.0010 0.0017 0.6 Strawberries(2015, domestic)
Vegetables 35,607 1093 3.07 0.0054 0.0017 3.8 Spinach(2008, domestic)
Meat 1201 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 3688 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 1952 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 0 0 0 0 0 0  
Imidacloprid Fruits 50,097 3952 7.89 0.0036 0.0002 2.3 Grapes(2010, import from Chile)
Vegetables 55,278 10,999 19.9 0.0036 0.0002 1.5 Broccoli(2013, domestic, organic)
Meat 5498 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 4480 1 0.02 0 0.0053 0.0053 Butter(2012, domestic)
Grain (includes Rice) 8146 1 0.01 0 0.0002 0.011 Rice(2009, import from India)
Nuts 862 0 0 0 0 0  
Thiacloprid Fruits 29,707 905 3.05 0.0006 0.0007 0.3385 Pears(2015, import from Chile)
Vegetables 26,078 60 0.23 0.0001 0.0007 0.49 Snap Peas (2012, import from Guatemala)
Meat 3367 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 2204 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 1604 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 0 0 0 0 0 0  
Thiamethoxam Fruits 39,367 730 1.85 0.0004 0.0013 0.28 Tangerines (2012, import from South Africa)
Vegetables 56,740 2082 3.67 0.0006 0.002 0.38 Cherry Tomatoes(2012, import from Mexico)
Meat 3836 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 3738 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 7395 1 0.01 0 0.0025 0.0025 Sweet Corn, Fresh(2010, import from Mexico)
Nuts 315 0 0 0 0 0  
  1. aJust among samples above LOD; See Additional file 2 for LODs by year, commodity and neonicotinoid