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Table 1 Characteristics of selected participants (n = 1057)

From: Mediating role of arsenic in the relationship between diet and pregnancy outcomes: prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh

Characteristic N (%) GA (SD)
in week
P-value GWG (SD)
in g/week
P-value BW (SD)
in kg
p-value
Maternal age (y)
 18–20 415 (39.3) 38.06 (1.77) 0.298 0.38 (0.13) < 0.001 2833 (359) 0.662
 21–25 393 (37.2) 37.89 (1.83)   0.35 (0.12)   2858 (425)  
 26–41 249 (23.6) 38.08 (1.84)   0.33 (0.12)   2840 (409)  
BMI at enrollment (kg/m2)
 < 18.5 296 (28.0) 37.97 (1.77) 0.309 0.38 (0.13) < 0.001 2792 (402) < 0.001
 18.5–25 663 (62.7) 37.97 (1.86)   0.36 (0.13)   2841 (379)  
 25–30 88 (8.3) 38.35 (1.55)   0.31 (0.09)   3018 (463)  
 > 30 10 (0.9) 37.90 (1.52)   0.34 (0.10)   2997 (284)  
Infant sex
 Male 536 (50.7) 38.02 (1.81) 0.773 0.35 (0.12) 0.214 2884 (370) 0.001
 Female 521 (49.3) 37.99 (1.81)   0.36 (0.13)   2805 (417)  
Birth type
 Vaginal 692 (65.5) 37.78 (1.90) < 0.001 0.35 (0.13) 0.001 2783 (401) < 0.001
 Cesarean 365 (34.5) 38.42 (1.55)   0.37 (0.12)   2959 (362)  
Birth location
 Home 581 (55.0) 37.75 (1.94) < 0.001 0.35 (0.12) 0.002 2749 (389) < 0.001
 Clinic 69 (6.5) 37.81 (1.90)   0.35 (0.10)   2996 (360)  
 Hospital 407 (38.5) 38.40 (1.51)   0.37 (0.13)   2964 (377)  
Drinking water arsenic (μg/L)
 < 50 833 (78.8) 38.24 (1.73) < 0.001 0.36 (0.13) < 0.001 2857 (376) 0.031
 ≥ 50 224 (21.2) 37.12 (1.82)   0.32 (0.11)   2793 (463)  
Toenail arsenic (μg/g)
 0.04–0.64 270 (25.5) 38.55 (1.57) < 0.001 0.38 (0.14) 0.002 2881 (319) 0.176
 0.65–1.20 259 (24.5) 37.97 (1.77)   0.36 (0.12)   2847 (375)  
 1.21–2.95 263 (24.9) 37.82 (1.92)   0.35 (0.12)   2805 (450)  
 2.96–46.58 265 (25.1) 37.66 (1.85)   0.34 (0.12)   2842 (428)  
Secondhand tobacco smoke
 No 613 (58.0) 38.05 (1.81) 0.298 0.36 (0.13) 0.010 2874 (393) 0.003
 Yes 444 (42.0) 37.93 (1.82)   0.35 (0.12)   3801 (398)  
Betel nut chewing
 No 1046 (99.0) 38.00 (1.81) 0.244 0.36 (0.12) 0.642 2845 (397) 0.254
 Yes 11 (1.0) 38.64 (1.75)   0.37 (0.13)   2708 (321)  
Maternal education
 Secondary 562 (53.2) 37.84 (1.79) < 0.001 0.36 (0.12) 0.025 2729 (381) 0.001
 Primary 342 (32.4) 38.37 (1.73)   0.36 (0.13)   2862 (380)  
 Illiterate 153 (14.5) 37.78 (1.92)   0.34 (0.12)   2864 (405)  
Household monthly income (USD)
 < 36 180 (17.0) 37.69 (1.87) < 0.001 0.37 (0.13) < 0.001 2804 (402) 0.001
 37–49 287 (27.2) 37.78 (1.89)   0.35 (0.11)   2837 (393)  
 50–61 308 (29.1) 38.12 (1.77)   0.36 (0.13)   2807 (423)  
 62–74 157 (14.9) 38.23 (1.72)   0.37 (0.13)   2877 (358)  
 > 75 125 (11.8) 38.39 (1.60)   0.40 (0.13)   2962 (354)  
Pregnancy activity level
 Low 55 (5.2) 37.76 (2.08) 0.489 0.36 (0.11) 0.960 2764 (581) 0.005
 Medium 950 (89.9) 38.02 (1.78)   0.36 (0.13)   2862 (382)  
 High 32 (3.0) 37.81 (2.12)   0.36 (0.12)   2718 (399)  
Hours spent cooking over open fire during pregnancy (h/day)
 0–2 79 (7.5) 38.65 (1.64) 0.002 0.40 (0.13) 0.017 2894 (310) 0.281
 2–4 531 (50.2) 37.88 (1.88)   0.35 (0.12)   2827 (414)  
 4–6 447 (42.3) 38.04 (1.73)   0.36 (0.12)   2854 (388)