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Table 2 Distribution of SG-corrected urinary biomarker concentrations and hormones and differences by study visit of sample collection in pregnancy

From: A repeated measures study of phenol, paraben and Triclocarban urinary biomarkers and circulating maternal hormones during gestation in the Puerto Rico PROTECT cohort

Biomarkersa 16–20 weeks (N = 389) 24–28 weeks (N = 262) p-value
GM (GSD) % < LOD 25% 50% 75% 95% GM (GSD) % < LOD 25% 50% 75% 95%
2,4-DCP 1.17 (3.24) 0.5 0.52 0.93 2.0 10.7 1.13 (9.8) 2.3 0.46 0.86 2.19 12.9 0.65
2,5-DCP 14.03 (5.14) 0.3 4.57 10.4 30.2 432.6 13.63 (360.3) 0 4.63 9.61 26.53 429.6 0.70
BPA 2.31 (2.25) 0.3 1.33 2.14 3.36 9.56 1.88 (2.4) 0.8 1.14 1.83 3.0 6.18 < 0.001*
BPSi 0.54 (3.15) 3.4 0.23 0.50 1.07 4.01 0.54 (5.2) 8.6 0.23 0.47 1.06 4.23 0.95
BPFi 0.35 (3.18) 51.9 <LOD 0.25 0.56 2.88 0.31 (2.4) 59.9 <LOD 0.24 0.46 2.09 0.22
BP-3 38.34 (6.49) 0.5 10.6 22.4 110.8 1547 44.27 (2500.4) 0.8 11.9 25.3 160.7 1913.5 0.69
TCS 21.78 (8.72) 11.1 3.70 13.1 146.8 877.4 25.03 (327.4) 6.1 4.73 17.9 118.6 960.2 0.64
TCCi 4.34 (10.27) 5.8 0.70 3.36 33.6 157.7 4.86 (56.2) 5.6 0.78 4.78 32.76 168.6 0.46
EPBi 3.42 (7.73) 42.4 <LOD 1.66 15.4 177.5 2.55 (62.1) 54 <LOD <LOD 7.6 76.1 0.12
MPB 80.72 (5.06) 0.3 25.08 116.5 274.8 846.1 92.5 (359) 0.8 30.2 111 314.5 1054.9 0.18
BPB 0.55 (8.12) 23.8 0.10 0.25 2.17 39.1 0.42 (12.2) 33.5 0.10 0.2 0.91 32.6 0.04*
PPB 17.51 (7.19) 0 3.59 21.1 80.5 262.4 17.61 (111.4) 0.4 4.0 25.17 83.65 253.8 0.99
Hormones 16–20 weeks (N = 483) 24–28 weeks (N = 389) p-value
GM (GSD) % < LOD 25% 50% 75% 95% GM (GSD) % < LOD 25% 50% 75% 95%
Progesteroneb 49.63 (1.49) 0 37.2 48.5 61.6 98.2 95.94 (1.65) 0 70.9 90.9 129.2 222.7 < 0.001*
Estriolb 18.85 (1.76) 0 13.2 17.6 27.5 50.5 44.63 (1.59) 0 33.8 44.9 57.5 97.3 < 0.001*
SHBG c 575.22 (1.4) 0 482.4 588.6 703.8 907.9 670.19 (1.35) 0 536.3 672.9 832.6 1097.7 < 0.001*
Prog/Estriol 2.64 (1.69) 1.97 2.66 3.70 5.83 2.15 (1.62) 1.58 2.12 2.86 4.48 < 0.001*
CRHd 76.67 (1.70) 0 54.8 80.6 111.8 171.9 78.01 (1.76) 0 55.2 82.8 114.3 178.1 < 0.001*
Testosteronef 50.55 (1.81) 1.8 37.5 51.5 73.5 124.4 60.22 (1.75) 0.9 45.1 60.7 88.1 131.6 < 0.001*
TSHe 1.29 (2.14) 0 0.93 1.38 2.06 3.28 1.45 (1.79) 0 1.08 1.51 2.05 3.64 0.04*
FT4f 1.10 (1.13) 0 1.02 1.10 1.19 1.35 1.06 (1.13) 0 0.98 1.06 1.15 1.29 < 0.001*
T3b 1.94 (1.22) 0 1.71 1.97 2.22 2.59 1.95 (1.21) 0 1.72 1.99 2.24 2.67 0.03*
T4 g 11.90 (1.20) 0 10.7 11.95 13.3 15.7 11.71 (1.20) 0 10.5 11.7 13.2 15.5 0.27
T3/T4 0.16 (1.21) 0.14 0.16 0.19 0.23 0.17 (1.22) 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.23 < 0.001*
  1. GM Geometric mean, GSD Geometric standard deviation
  2. 2,4-DCP: 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-DCP: 2,5-dichlorophenol; BP-3 Benzophenone, TCS Triclosan, TCC Triclocarban, EPB ethylparaben, MPB Methylparaben, BPB Butylparaben, PPB Propylparaben
  3. Range of gestational weeks: 16–20 weeks: 16–20 weeks gestation, 24–28 weeks: 24–28 weeks gestation
  4. *Significant difference (p < 0.05) in urinary biomarker or hormone compared to reference (16–20 weeks) using linear mixed models with a random intercept
  5. aUnits: μg/L. b Units: ng/mL. c Units: nmol/L. d Units: pg/mL. e Units: uIU/mL. f Units: ng/dL. g Units: μg/dL. I BPS, BPF, TCC and EPB had the lowest sample sizes because they were added to the biomarker assay at mid-study. At 16–20 weeks, these four urinary biomarkers had N = 295. At 24–28 weeks, these four urinary biomarkers had N = 198