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Table 1 Characteristics of study population

From: Exposure to prenatal secondhand smoke and early neurodevelopment: Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study

  Number (%) or Mean ± SD   at 24 months
P MDI PDI
Mean ± SD P Mean ± SD P
Total 720   97.01 ± 14.52   96.78 ± 13.50  
Maternal characteristics      
Maternal age, years      
 ≤30 429 (59.6) <0.001 98.28 ± 14.45 0.004 97.00 ± 13.57 0.59
 >30 291 (40.4)   95.13 ± 14.44   96.45 ± 13.42  
Maternal education      
 ≤High school 284 (39.4) <0.001 95.23 ± 14.60 0.03 94.64 ± 13.74 0.002
 ≥University 372 (51.7)   98.16 ± 14.40   98.04 ± 13.31  
 missing 64 (8.9)   98.25 ± 14.27   98.97 ± 12.42  
Region       
 Seoul 177 (24.6) <0.001 95.51 ± 14.43 0.02 97.97 ± 13.03 <0.001
 Cheonan 340 (47.2)   96.34 ± 15.20   93.53 ± 12.84  
 Ulsan 203 (28.2)   99.44 ± 13.14   101.19 ± 13.63  
GSTM1      
 Present (=positive) 315 (44.4) 0.003 96.19 ± 14.10 0.22 95.88 ± 12.66 0.12
 Null (=negative) 394 (55.6)   97.53 ± 14.92   97.47 ± 14.20  
GSTT1      
 Present (=positive) 345 (48.7) 0.48 96.32 ± 14.50 0.28 96.30 ± 13.25 0.38
 Null (=negative) 364 (51.3)   97.51 ± 14.62   97.20 ± 13.84  
Urinary cotinine       
 ≤mediana 368 (50.6) 0.74 97.05 ± 14.81 0.80 96.86 ± 14.07 0.80
 >mediana 359 (49.4)   96.77 ± 14.43   96.60 ± 12.97  
Infant characteristics      
Infant sex       
 Male 381 (52.9) 0.12 92.56 ± 14.31 <0.001 94.81 ± 13.45 <0.001
 Female 339 (47.1)   102.01 ± 13.07   99.00 ± 13.23  
Breastfeeding only up to 6 months      
 Yes 257 (35.7) <0.001 98.81 ± 14.40 0.04 97.33 ± 14.30 0.11
 No 383 (59.2)   95.87 ± 14.55   95.93 ± 13.04  
 missing 80 (11.1)   96.68 ± 14.37   99.11 ± 12.81  
Primary caregiver during the first 24 months after birth    
 Mother 368 (51.1) 0.55 97.90 ± 14.42 0.09 96.49 ± 13.99 0.56
 Others 352 (48.9)   96.08 ± 14.58   97.09 ± 12.98  
Gestational Age 39.06 ± 1.08      
  1. SD standard deviation, MDI Mental Development Index, PDI Psychomotor Development Index, GSTM1 Glutathione S-transferases mu1, GSTT1 Glutathione S-transferases theta 1
  2. aMedian of urinary cotinine level is 1.90 ng/ml