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Table 1 Studies of maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites and fetal growth outcomes measured at birth

From: Fetal growth in environmental epidemiology: mechanisms, limitations, and a review of associations with biomarkers of non-persistent chemical exposures during pregnancy

Reference Country, years N Urinary phthalate metabolites Timing of urine collection Birth size outcome(s) Notes1 All2 Girls2 Boys2
Wolff et al. 2008 [89] USA
1998-2002
404 ∑LMW: MMP, MEP, MBP, MiBP
∑HMW: MBzP, MCPP, MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP
∑DEHP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP
3rd trimester BW
BL
HC
primiparas only + BL (MBzP)
+ HC (MEP, ∑LMW)
  
Suzuki et al. 2010 [95] Japan
2005-2008
149 MMP, MEP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MiNP, MnOP 29 weeks BW
BL
HC
  NS   
Philippat et al. 2012 [96] France
2003-2006
287 ∑LMW: MEP, MBP, MiBP
∑HMW: MBzP, MCPP, MCOP, MCNP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP
22 weeks BW
BL
HC
    - BW (MCPP, MECPP)
- BL (MCPP)
Zhao et al.
2014 [97]
China
2012-2013
126 MBP, MMP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP
3rd trimester BW
BL
  - BW (MEHHP, MEOHP) NS - BW (MEHHP, MEOHP)
Smarr et al. 2015 [98] USA
2005-2009
233 MMP, MEP, MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MECPP, MCMHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MEHP, MCPP, MCHP, MiNP, MnOP pre-conception BW
BL
HC
not adjusted for GA - BW (MMP, MEP, MCMHP, MOP)
- BL (MMP)
- HC (MEP, MEOHP, MECPP)
  
Botton et al. 2016 [99] France
2003-2006
520 ∑LMW: MEP, MBP, MiBP
∑HMW: MBzP, MCOP, MCPP, MCNP, MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP
∑DEHP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP
26 weeks BW
BL
HC
    + BL (MCNP)
Casas et al. 2016 [100] Spain
2004-2006
390 MBzP
∑LMW: MEP, MiBP, MnBP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP
12, 32
weeks*
BW
BL
HC
  NS + BW (MiBP) + BW (MBzP, MnBP)
Ferguson et al. 2016 [101, 102] USA
2006-2008
482 MEP, MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MCPP
∑DEHP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP
10, 18, 26, 35 weeks* BW   NS NS NS
Polanska et al. 2016 [103] Poland
2007
165 ∑LMW: MEP, MiBP, MBzP, MnBP, OH-MnBP
∑HMW: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MHiNP, MOiNP, MOP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP
∑DBP: MnBP, OH-MnBP
∑DiNP: MHiNP, MOiNP
3rd trimester BW
BL
HC
  NS   
Sathyanarayana et al. 2016 [104] USA
2010-2012
674 MEP, MBzP, MBP, MCPP, MCOP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP
1st trimester BW not adjusted for GA   + BW (MEHHP) NS
<37 weeks only; not adjusted for GA + BW (MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, ∑DEHP) NS
≥37 weeks only; not adjusted for GA NS + BW (MCOP)
Shoaff et al. 2016 [105] USA
2003-2006
368 ∑DEHP: MEHHP, MEHP, MEOHP, MECPP 16, 26 weeks* BW
BL
HC
not adjusted for GA NS   
Watkins et al. 2016 [106] USA
2009-2012
68 MEP, MBzP, MCPP
∑DBP: MnBP, MiBP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP
1st trimester BW
BL
HC
   - BW (∑DBP)
+ BL (MCPP)
NS
delivery   + BW (MCPP)
+ BL (MBzP, ∑DBP)
+ HC (MCPP)
+ BW (∑DBP)
+ BL (MCPP)
1st trimester, delivery*   NS + BW (∑DBP)
+ HC (∑DBP)
Gao et al. 2017 [107] China
2013-2014
3103 MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP
10 weeks BW
BL
HC
not adjusted for GA - BW (MBzP)   
Huang et al. 2017 [108] Taiwan
2010
162 ∑Phthalates: MMP, MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MECPP 11 weeks BW
BL
HC
  NS   
26 weeks - BL (MMP, ∑Phthalates)
- HC (∑Phthalates)
  
delivery - HC (∑Phthalates)   
Messerlian et al. 2017 [109] USA
2005-2016
364 MEP, MCPP, MCOP, MCNP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP
pre-conception BW non-IVF births; not adjusted for GA - BW (MCNP)   
6, 21, 35 weeks* + BW (MBP, MiBP, MBzP)   
Woods et al. 2017 [110] USA
2003-2006
272 MBP, MiBP, MEP, MBzP, MCPP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP 16, 27 weeks* BW   NS   
Chiu et al. 2018 [111] USA
2015-2016
300 MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP 1st, 2nd, 3rd trimesters* BW   NS   
Zhang et al. 2018 [112] China
2013-2014
3103 MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP
∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP
1st, 2nd, 3rd trimesters* BW not adjusted for GA - BW (MMP, MEP) - BL (MMP, MEP) NS
Zhu et al. 2018 [113] China
2014
1002 ∑LMW: MMP, MEP, MiBP, MnBP
∑DEHP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP
delivery BW
BL
   NS + BW (∑DEHP, MECPP, MEOHP)
  1. 1Unless otherwise specified, studies included term, preterm, parous, and nulliparous births, and models of birth outcomes adjusted for or standardized to gestational age
  2. 2Blank cells indicate associations were not examined; NS indicates that associations within that category were examined but not statistically significant at p<0.05
  3. *Average of two or more urine samples
  4. Abbreviations. BL, birth length; BW, birth weight; GA, gestational age; HC, head circumference; IVF, in vitro fertilization; MBP, monobutyl phthalate; MBzP, monobenzyl phthalate; MCHP, monocyclohexyl phthalate; MCOP, monocarboxy-isooctyl phthalate; MCNP, monocarboxy-isononyl phthalate; MCPP, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate; MCMHP, mono-[(2-carboxymethyl) hexyl] phthalate; MEP, monoethyl phthalate; MECPP, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate; MEHHP, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate; MEHP, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate; MEOHP, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexylphthalate; MHiNP, mono-hydroxy-iso-nonyl phthalate; MiBP, monoisobutyl phthalate; MiNP, mono-iso-nonyl phthalate; MMP, monomethyl phthalate; MnBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate; MnOP, mono-n-octyl phthalate; MOP, monooctyl phthalate; MOiNP, mono-oxo-iso-nonyl phthalate; OH-MnBP, 3OH-mono-n-butyl phthalate; ∑DBP, molar sum of the dibutyl phthalate metabolites that follow; ∑DEHP, molar sum of the di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites that follow; ∑DiNP, molar sum of the di-iso-nonyl phthalate metabolites that follow; ∑HMW, molar sum of the high molecular weight phthalate metabolites that follow; ∑LMW, molar sum of the low molecular weight phthalate metabolites that follow