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Table 1 Studies of maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites and fetal growth outcomes measured at birth

From: Fetal growth in environmental epidemiology: mechanisms, limitations, and a review of associations with biomarkers of non-persistent chemical exposures during pregnancy

Reference Country, years N Urinary phthalate metabolites Timing of urine collection Birth size outcome(s) Notes1 All2 Girls2 Boys2
Wolff et al. 2008 [89] USA 1998-2002 404 ∑LMW: MMP, MEP, MBP, MiBP ∑HMW: MBzP, MCPP, MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP ∑DEHP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP 3rd trimester BW BL HC primiparas only + BL (MBzP) + HC (MEP, ∑LMW)   
Suzuki et al. 2010 [95] Japan 2005-2008 149 MMP, MEP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MiNP, MnOP 29 weeks BW BL HC   NS   
Philippat et al. 2012 [96] France 2003-2006 287 ∑LMW: MEP, MBP, MiBP ∑HMW: MBzP, MCPP, MCOP, MCNP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP 22 weeks BW BL HC     - BW (MCPP, MECPP) - BL (MCPP)
Zhao et al. 2014 [97] China 2012-2013 126 MBP, MMP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP 3rd trimester BW BL   - BW (MEHHP, MEOHP) NS - BW (MEHHP, MEOHP)
Smarr et al. 2015 [98] USA 2005-2009 233 MMP, MEP, MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MECPP, MCMHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MEHP, MCPP, MCHP, MiNP, MnOP pre-conception BW BL HC not adjusted for GA - BW (MMP, MEP, MCMHP, MOP) - BL (MMP) - HC (MEP, MEOHP, MECPP)   
Botton et al. 2016 [99] France 2003-2006 520 ∑LMW: MEP, MBP, MiBP ∑HMW: MBzP, MCOP, MCPP, MCNP, MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP ∑DEHP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP 26 weeks BW BL HC     + BL (MCNP)
Casas et al. 2016 [100] Spain 2004-2006 390 MBzP ∑LMW: MEP, MiBP, MnBP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP 12, 32 weeks* BW BL HC   NS + BW (MiBP) + BW (MBzP, MnBP)
Ferguson et al. 2016 [101, 102] USA 2006-2008 482 MEP, MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MCPP ∑DEHP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks* BW   NS NS NS
Polanska et al. 2016 [103] Poland 2007 165 ∑LMW: MEP, MiBP, MBzP, MnBP, OH-MnBP ∑HMW: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MHiNP, MOiNP, MOP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP ∑DBP: MnBP, OH-MnBP ∑DiNP: MHiNP, MOiNP 3rd trimester BW BL HC   NS   
Sathyanarayana et al. 2016 [104] USA 2010-2012 674 MEP, MBzP, MBP, MCPP, MCOP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP 1st trimester BW not adjusted for GA   + BW (MEHHP) NS
<37 weeks only; not adjusted for GA + BW (MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, ∑DEHP) NS
≥37 weeks only; not adjusted for GA NS + BW (MCOP)
Shoaff et al. 2016 [105] USA 2003-2006 368 ∑DEHP: MEHHP, MEHP, MEOHP, MECPP 16, 26 weeks* BW BL HC not adjusted for GA NS   
Watkins et al. 2016 [106] USA 2009-2012 68 MEP, MBzP, MCPP ∑DBP: MnBP, MiBP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP 1st trimester BW BL HC    - BW (∑DBP) + BL (MCPP) NS
delivery   + BW (MCPP) + BL (MBzP, ∑DBP) + HC (MCPP) + BW (∑DBP) + BL (MCPP)
1st trimester, delivery*   NS + BW (∑DBP) + HC (∑DBP)
Gao et al. 2017 [107] China 2013-2014 3103 MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP 10 weeks BW BL HC not adjusted for GA - BW (MBzP)   
Huang et al. 2017 [108] Taiwan 2010 162 ∑Phthalates: MMP, MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MECPP 11 weeks BW BL HC   NS   
26 weeks - BL (MMP, ∑Phthalates) - HC (∑Phthalates)   
delivery - HC (∑Phthalates)   
Messerlian et al. 2017 [109] USA 2005-2016 364 MEP, MCPP, MCOP, MCNP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP pre-conception BW non-IVF births; not adjusted for GA - BW (MCNP)   
6, 21, 35 weeks* + BW (MBP, MiBP, MBzP)   
Woods et al. 2017 [110] USA 2003-2006 272 MBP, MiBP, MEP, MBzP, MCPP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP 16, 27 weeks* BW   NS   
Chiu et al. 2018 [111] USA 2015-2016 300 MEP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP 1st, 2nd, 3rd trimesters* BW   NS   
Zhang et al. 2018 [112] China 2013-2014 3103 MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP ∑DEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP 1st, 2nd, 3rd trimesters* BW not adjusted for GA - BW (MMP, MEP) - BL (MMP, MEP) NS
Zhu et al. 2018 [113] China 2014 1002 ∑LMW: MMP, MEP, MiBP, MnBP ∑DEHP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP delivery BW BL    NS + BW (∑DEHP, MECPP, MEOHP)
  1. 1Unless otherwise specified, studies included term, preterm, parous, and nulliparous births, and models of birth outcomes adjusted for or standardized to gestational age
  2. 2Blank cells indicate associations were not examined; NS indicates that associations within that category were examined but not statistically significant at p<0.05
  3. *Average of two or more urine samples
  4. Abbreviations. BL, birth length; BW, birth weight; GA, gestational age; HC, head circumference; IVF, in vitro fertilization; MBP, monobutyl phthalate; MBzP, monobenzyl phthalate; MCHP, monocyclohexyl phthalate; MCOP, monocarboxy-isooctyl phthalate; MCNP, monocarboxy-isononyl phthalate; MCPP, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate; MCMHP, mono-[(2-carboxymethyl) hexyl] phthalate; MEP, monoethyl phthalate; MECPP, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate; MEHHP, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate; MEHP, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate; MEOHP, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexylphthalate; MHiNP, mono-hydroxy-iso-nonyl phthalate; MiBP, monoisobutyl phthalate; MiNP, mono-iso-nonyl phthalate; MMP, monomethyl phthalate; MnBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate; MnOP, mono-n-octyl phthalate; MOP, monooctyl phthalate; MOiNP, mono-oxo-iso-nonyl phthalate; OH-MnBP, 3OH-mono-n-butyl phthalate; ∑DBP, molar sum of the dibutyl phthalate metabolites that follow; ∑DEHP, molar sum of the di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites that follow; ∑DiNP, molar sum of the di-iso-nonyl phthalate metabolites that follow; ∑HMW, molar sum of the high molecular weight phthalate metabolites that follow; ∑LMW, molar sum of the low molecular weight phthalate metabolites that follow