Skip to main content

Table 5 Associations between maternal PFAS concentrations (divided by tertiles) and neuropsychological problems of ASQ scales at 4 years of age among boys and girls in Poisson regression with robust variance estimates

From: Prenatal plasma concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and neuropsychological development in children at four years of age

PFAS Communication ARR (95% CI) Gross motor ARR (95% CI) Fine motor ARR (95% CI) Problem solving ARR (95% CI) Personal–social skills ARR (95% CI)
Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297) Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297) Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297) Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297) Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297)
PFHxS
 Low tertile Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle tertile 0.99 (0.53, 1.83) 0.64 (0.39, 1.05) 1.55 (0.68, 3.55) 0.76 (0.35, 1.67) 1.46 (0.35, 6.10) 0.55 (0.27, 1.13) 0.81 (0.35, 1.89) 0.85 (0.44, 1.64) 1.62 (0.43, 6.08) 0.68 (0.30, 1.55)
 High tertile 1.24 (0.65, 2.36) 0.90 (0.59, 1.36) 1.43 (0.55, 3.68) 0.57 (0.26, 1.24) 0.50 (0.05, 5.00) 0.73 (0.40, 1.36) 1.24 (0.48, 3.21) 0.61 (0.32, 1.18) 2.56 (0.73, 9.03) 1.77 (0.94, 3.34)
PFOS
 Low tertile Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle tertile 0.52 (0.26, 1.04)# 1.16 (0.76, 1.77) 0.81 (0.27, 2.43) 0.94 (0.43, 2.07) 0.79 (0.13, 4.91) 1.87 (0.92, 3.80)# 0.55 (0.15, 2.07) 1.21 (0.65, 2.28) 0.32 (0.04, 2.77) 1.47 (0.76, 2.84)
 High tertile 1.10 (0.63, 1.92) 0.89 (0.53, 1.51) 1.61 (0.62, 4.16) 0.91 (0.37, 2.24) 1.98 (0.34, 11.53) 1.19 (0.52, 2.71) 2.00 (0.77, 5.17) 0.66 (0.29, 1.48) 2.97 (0.90, 9.84)# 1.18 (0.57, 2.44)
PFOA
 Low tertile Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle tertile 0.86 (0.49, 1.50) 1.02 (0.65, 1.6) 1.08 (0.33, 3.57) 0.51 (0.23, 1.11)# 0.50 (0.13, 1.93) 0.88 (0.43, 1.80) 0.93 (0.35, 2.46) 1.09 (0.56, 2.12) not converge 1.60 (0.80, 3.19)
 High tertile 0.55 (0.28, 1.10)# 0.96 (0.61, 1.52) 1.90 (0.66, 5.44) 0.45 (0.19, 1.04)# 1.32 (0.29, 5.93) 0.91 (0.47, 1.78) 0.90 (0.36, 2.26) 1.10 (0.58, 2.06) not converge 1.50 (0.77, 2.93)
PFNA
 Low tertile Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle tertile 0.73 (0.41, 1.32) 1.19 (0.76, 1.88) 0.96 (0.29, 3.20) 0.91 (0.39, 2.08) 1.15 (0.25, 5.24) 1.72 (0.82, 3.62) 0.56 (0.20, 1.55) 1.24 (0.64, 2.43) 2.87 (0.37, 22.20) 1.23 (0.62, 2.47)
 High tertile 0.50 (0.26, 0.94)* 1.17 (0.72, 1.91) 1.50 (0.54, 4.21) 1.06 (0.48, 2.35) 0.46 (0.10, 2.11) 1.72 (0.82, 3.59) 0.93 (0.4, 2.17) 1.08 (0.52, 2.25) 5.68 (0.82, 39.34) 1.70 (0.86, 3.36)
PFDA
 Low tertile Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle tertile 0.61 (0.31, 1.20) 1.01 (0.66, 1.55) 1.16 (0.36, 3.71) 0.87 (0.42, 1.81) 2.04 (0.43, 9.66) 1.65 (0.87, 3.13) 0.50 (0.14, 1.74) 1.27 (0.69, 2.33) 2.16 (0.26, 17.69) 1.14 (0.57, 2.28)
 High tertile 1.02 (0.54, 1.91) 0.88 (0.55, 1.42) 1.83 (0.62, 5.39) 0.53 (0.21, 1.32) 0.40 (0.03, 4.74) 0.80 (0.37, 1.76) 1.71 (0.70, 4.15) 0.65 (0.31, 1.36) 8.68 (1.41, 53.43)* 1.52 (0.74, 3.09)
PFUdA
 Low tertile Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle tertile 0.64 (0.32, 1.25) 1.18 (0.78, 1.80) 0.44 (0.12, 1.53) 1.14 (0.54, 2.43) 2.10 (0.43, 10.41) 2.19 (1.16, 4.17)* 0.27 (0.05, 1.33) 1.57 (0.81, 3.03) 0.79 (0.11, 5.56) 1.77 (0.90, 3.47)#
 High tertile 0.93 (0.52, 1.66) 0.83 (0.50, 1.38) 1.29 (0.53, 3.16) 0.77 (0.31, 1.92) 1.35 (0.18, 10.02) 0.64 (0.26, 1.56) 1.35 (0.62, 2.94) 0.88 (0.40, 1.90) 3.72 (0.79, 17.62)# 1.12 (0.48, 2.63)
PFDoA
 Low tertile Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle tertile 0.78 (0.38, 1.58) 1.29 (0.82, 2.04) 0.81 (0.27, 2.38) 0.88 (0.41, 1.91) 0.48 (0.11, 2.06) 1.34 (0.70, 2.56) 1.25 (0.35, 4.41) 1.06 (0.54, 2.06) 3.99 (0.46, 34.3) 0.91 (0.47, 1.77)
 High tertile 1.33 (0.72, 2.46) 1.14 (0.72, 1.82) 1.27 (0.51, 3.19) 0.93 (0.41, 2.09) 0.40 (0.07, 2.37) 0.84 (0.41, 1.75) 1.78 (0.61, 5.23) 1.13 (0.58, 2.18) 6.89 (0.97, 48.67)# 0.91 (0.46, 1.79)
PFTrDA
 Low tertile Ref Ref’ Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Middle tertile 1.19 (0.60, 2.36) 1.53 (0.92, 2.55) 0.94 (0.33, 2.66) 2.25 (0.82, 6.14) 0.44 (0.10, 1.98) 1.90 (0.86, 4.20) 1.69 (0.64, 4.47) 1.46 (0.75, 2.84) 0.79 (0.21, 2.96) 1.70 (0.85, 3.4)
 High tertile 1.36 (0.69, 2.69) 1.83 (1.08, 3.12)* 0.85 (0.31, 2.29) 1.68 (0.56, 5.1) 0.28 (0.05, 1.61) 1.81 (0.78, 4.19) 0.88 (0.31, 2.52) 0.71 (0.29, 1.73) 0.84 (0.23, 3.03) 1.29 (0.61, 2.75)
  1. Models were adjusted for maternal age at enrollment (ages), pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2), maternal education, paternal education, parity, per capita household income (< 4000, 4000–8000, and > 8000 CNY), maternal passive smoking (yes or no), maternal prenatal depressive symptoms (yes or no), and gestational age (weeks)
  2. ARR Adjusted risk ratio, CI Confidence interval
  3. # Marginally significant differences (0.05 < p < 0.10)
  4. * Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05)
  5. p-trend < 0.05
  6. 0.05 < p-trend < 0.10