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Table 1 Summary of Demographic Characterization and Health Outcomes among Health and PreDM Subjects

From: Susceptibility of prediabetes to the health effect of air pollution: a community-based panel study with a nested case-control design

  Healthy PreDM p value
Number of subjects 56 54  
Number of visits 5.5 5.0  
Characteristic Type
 Age 50–58 years 36 28 0.26
58–65 years 20 26
 Sex Female 31 32 0.83
Male 25 22
 BMI Normal 36 32 0.83
Overweight 17 18
Obese 3 4
 Smoker No 53 49 0.67
Yes 3 5
 Medication No 49 31 <  0.01
Yes 7 23
Health Outcomes Unit
 FENO ppb 22.0 (15.3) 22.6 (16.0) 0.92
 WBC 109/L 5.6 (1.5) 5.9 (1.3) 0.02
 Neut 109/L 3.3 (1.1) 3.3 (1.0) 0.17
 Mono 109/L 0.3 (0.1) 0.3 (0.1) 0.95
 Lymph 109/L 1.9 (0.5) 2.0 (0.6) <  0.01
 CRP mg/L 0.1 (0.2) 0.2 (0.3) <  0.01
 TNF (Serum) pg/ml 5.9 (3.7) 5.6 (5.9) 0.08
 IL1-α (Serum) g/ml 2.3 (3.8) 1.9 (2.6) 0.15
 IL1-β (Serum) pg/ml 6.5 (3.0) 6.3 (3.9) 0.60
 IL-2 (Serum) pg/ml 11.3 (1.8) 12.2 (9.0) 0.50
 IL-6 (Serum) pg/ml 5.3 (3.0) 10.0 (34.9) 0.78
 IL-8 (Serum) pg/ml 15.3 (11.4) 17.4 (14.2) <  0.01
 Glu mmol/L 5.6 (0.5) 6.5 (1.1) <  0.01
 Ins uU/mL 6.3 (3.8) 8.2 (4.8) <  0.01
 HOMA-IR mmol*uU 1.6 (1.0) 2.4 (2.0) <  0.01
 HbA1c % 5.5 (0.3) 6.0 (0.8) <  0.01
 SBP mmHg 111.9 (10.6) 117.6 (11.2) <  0.01
 DBP mmHg 78.9 (7.3) 81.6 (7.7) <  0.01
 AP75 % 7.7 (4.0) 8.8 (3.5) <  0.01
 RHI NA 1.9 (0.6) 1.9 (0.6) 0.78
  1. The statistical analysis for the difference of demographical characterizations between healthy and PreDM subjects were based on Chi-square test; The summary of the 20 biomarkers were described with the format of mean (SD), and the statistical analysis for the difference between healthy and PreDM subjects were based on ANOVA analysis
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, FENO Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, WBC White blood cell, Neut Neutrophil, Mono Monocytes, Lymph Lymphocyte, CRP C-reactive protein, TNF tumor necrosis factor–α, IL Interleukin, Glu Fasting glucose, Ins Insulin, HOMA-IR Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c, SBP Systolic blood pressure, SDP Diastolic blood pressure, AP75 Heart rate of 75 pulse beats, RHI Reactive hyperemia index