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Table 1 Weighted LIFECODES demographic characteristics overall and by preeclampsia status: crude N (weighted %) or weighted median (weighted IQR)

From: Urinary trace metals, maternal circulating angiogenic biomarkers, and preeclampsia: a single-contaminant and mixture-based approach

  Overall (N = 383) Preeclamptic (N = 28) Non-Preeclamptic (N = 355) P *
Maternal Age (years) 32.7 (29.1, 35.7) 33.0 (29.0, 35.1) 32.7 (29.1, 35.7) 0.62
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)a 23.9 (21.4, 27.9) 29.8 (24.5, 36.7) 23.8 (21.3, 27.4) < 0.01
Maternal Race
 White 231 (60.3%) 21 (75.0%) 210 (59.2%) 0.11
 African American 57 (14.9%) 6 (19.4%) 51 (14.8%)
 Other 95 (24.8%) 1 (5.6%) 94 (26.1%)
Maternal Educationa
  < High School 53 (13.6%) 7 (21.5%) 46 (13.1%) 0.39
 Technical College 57 (14.9%) 3 (9.7%) 54 (15.2%)
 Junior College or Some College 115 (31.3%) 11 (40.3%) 104 (30.7%)
  > College 148 (40.3%) 7 (28.5%) 141 (41.0%)
Maternal Health Insuranceb
 Private/HMO/Self-Pay 311 (82.7%) 25 (90.3%) 286 (82.2%) 0.31
 Public 63 (17.3%) 3 (9.7%) 60 (17.8%)
Maternal Smoking During Pregnancyc
 No 353 (93.9%) 24 (91.7%) 329 (94.0%) 0.56
 Yes 25 (6.1%) 4 (8.3%) 21 (6.0%)
Maternal Alcohol Use During Pregnancyb
 No 359 (95.2%) 28 (100.0%) 331 (94.9%)  
 Yes 15 (4.8%) 0 (0.0%) 15 (5.1%)
Parity
 Nulliparous 167 (43.8%) 12 (42.4%) 155 (43.9%) 0.88
 Parous 216 (56.2%) 16 (57.6%) 200 (56.1%)
Previous Preeclampsia Diagnosis
 No 370 (97.3%) 24 (91.7%) 346 (97.7%) 0.03
 Yes 13 (2.7%) 4 (8.3%) 9 (2.3%)
Gestational Diabetes
 No 355 (93.4%) 25 (90.3%) 330 (93.6%) 0.52
 Yes 28 (6.6%) 3 (9.7%) 25 (6.4%)
Use of ART
 No 349 (90.8%) 23 (75.7%) 326 (91.7%) 0.02
 Yes 34 (9.2%) 5 (24.3%) 29 (8.3%)
Chronic Hypertension
 No 368 (97.1%) 22 (87.6%) 346 (97.7%) < 0.01
 Yes 15 (2.9%) 6 (12.5%) 9 (2.3%)
Use of Multivitamins During Pregnancyc
 No 106 (27.4%) 8 (30.6%) 98 (27.2%) 0.73
 Yes 272 (72.6%) 20 (69.4%) 252 (72.8%)
Use of Calcium Supplements During Pregnancyc
 No 324 (85.9%) 20 (72.9%) 304 (86.7%) 0.07
 Yes 54 (14.1%) 8 (27.1%) 46 (13.3%)
Use of Iron Supplement During Pregnancyc
 No 336 (88.7%) 24 (91.7%) 312 (88.5%) 0.53
 Yes 42 (11.3%) 4 (8.3%) 38 (11.5%)
Infant Sex
 Female 166 (44.7%) 17 (77.2%) 149 (42.8%) < 0.01
 Male 217 (55.3%) 11 (22.8%) 206 (57.2%)
Maternal sFlt-1Expressiond (ng/mL) 5.79 (3.85, 9.12) 6.30 (4.15, 9.88) 5.72 (3.83, 9.06) 0.29
Maternal PLGF Expressione (pg/mL) 448 (284, 645) 275 (421, 132) 456 (292, 651) < 0.01
Maternal sFlt-1/PLGF Ratiod 13.8 (8.27, 22.9) 23.2 (12.0, 39.9) 13.3 (8.11, 22.3) 0.03
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, ART assisted reproductive technology, sFlt-1 soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, PlGF placental growth factor
  2. *p-value for weighted t-test, Chi-square test, or Fisher Exact test, where appropriate
  3. a = 10 missing, b = 9 missing, c = 5 missing, d = 16 missing, e = 15 missing