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Table 4 Determinants of the proportion of arsenic metabolites in urine during early gestation (visit 1)

From: Determinants of arsenic methylation efficiency and urinary arsenic level in pregnant women in Bangladesh

  All mothers (N = 1595) Restricted sample
(adjusted U-As > 50 μg/g-creatinine; N = 1066)a
iAs%   MMA%   DMA%   iAs%   MMA%   DMA%  
β p-value β p-value β p-value β p-value β p-value β p-value
Intercept 12.98 < 0.01 9.09 < 0.01 77.92 < 0.01 12.01 < 0.01 6.42 < 0.01 81.57 < 0.01
Gestational age at measurement (week) −0.13 0.21 −0.26 < 0.01 0.39 < 0.01 −0.17 0.03 −0.21 < 0.01 0.38 < 0.01
Maternal age (year) −0.17 0.03 −0.02 0.59 0.19 0.03 −0.15 0.02 0 0.95 0.15 0.04
BMI at enrollment (kg/m2) 0.01 0.96 −0.1 0.02 0.09 0.41 −0.02 0.85 −0.06 0.11 0.07 0.43
Education level (≥secondary education) −0.83 0.20 0.20 0.45 0.63 0.37 −1.16 0.03 0.36 0.12 0.80 0.17
Income of financial provider (≥3000 taka) −0.68 0.30 0.52 0.05 0.16 0.82 −0.68 0.20 0.07 0.76 0.61 0.31
Adjusted U-As (μg/g-creatinine) 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 < 0.01 −0.01 < 0.01 0.01 < 0.01 0 < 0.01 −0.01 < 0.01
Daily protein intake (g) 0.02 0.01 0 0.67 −0.02 0.01 0.02 < 0.01 0 0.47 −0.02 < 0.01
Daily energy intake (kcal), medium tertile 0.14 0.86 −0.26 0.43 0.12 0.89 −0.45 0.49 0 0.99 0.45 0.54
Daily energy intake (kcal), high tertile −2.30 0.02 −0.39 0.32 2.69 0.01 −2.53 < 0.01 −0.18 0.59 2.71 < 0.01
Daily folate intake (μg) 0 0.75 0 0.07 0 0.71 0 0.56 0 0.06 −0.01 0.21
  1. a Linear models applied to all mothers, as well as to a restricted sample of participants with adjusted U-As > 50 μg/g creatinine. We selected this cut-off point because it is around the 25th percentile of the distribution of adjusted U-As at both visits. We did not include outliers of adjusted U-As in the analysis, which was > 3000 μg/g-creatinine because of very low creatinine level (< 10 mg/dL) (N = 11)