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Table 4 Weighted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) of Airflow Obstruction and Restrictive Pattern, Defined Based on the Lower Limit of Normal (LLN), by Urinary Arsenic Concentration (N = 2132)

From: Low-moderate arsenic exposure and respiratory in American Indian communities in the Strong Heart Study

 Inorganic Plus Methylated Arsenic Species μg/g creatinineP-trendd
Tertile 1
≤7.0e
Tertile 2
7.1–13.9e
Tertile 3
≥14.0e
75th vs. 25th Percentilef
Airflow obstructiona/Healthyc47/77357/62647/435151/1834 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)1.15 (0.84, 1.58)1.64 (1.16, 2.34)1.47 (1.17, 1.88)0.001
 Model 21.00 (Ref)1.11 (0.80, 1.53)1.50 (1.05, 2.15)1.38 (1.09, 1.76)0.007
 Model 31.00 (Ref)1.08 (0.78, 1.50)1.36 (0.94, 1.97)1.28 (1.02, 1.60)0.03
 Model 41.00 (Ref)1.07 (0.78, 1.49)1.33 (0.92, 1.93)1.26 (1.01, 1.59)0.04
Restrictive patternb/ Healthyc62/77342/62643/435147/1834 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)0.85 (0.58, 1.26)1.45 (0.91, 2.30)1.33 (1.00, 1.76)0.05
 Model 21.00 (Ref)0.85 (0.58, 1.26)1.41 (0.88, 2.25)1.30 (0.98, 1.74)0.07
 Model 31.00 (Ref)0.86 (0.58, 1.28)1.42 (0.88, 2.28)1.33 (0.90, 1.50)0.06
 Model 41.00 (Ref)0.83 (0.56, 1.23)1.23 (0.76, 2.00)1.21 (0.90, 1.64)0.22
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, education, site
  2. Model 2: further adjusted for smoking status and smoking pack-year
  3. Model 3: further adjusted for eGFR, tuberculosis, and BMI
  4. Model 4: sensitivity analysis: further adjusted for diabetes
  5. aAirflow obstruction: FEV1/FVC < LLN
  6. bRestrictive pattern: FEV1/FVC > LLN & FVC < LLN
  7. cHealthy: FEV1/FVC > LLN and FVC > LLN
  8. dP-trend calculated modeling log-arsenic as continuous
  9. eTertiles are range; calculated based on overall population; sum of iAs, MMA, DMA μg/g creatinine
  10. fComparison of the 75th and 25th percentiles (interquartile range) of urinary arsenic concentrations (16.7 vs. 5.8 μg/g creatinine)