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Table 6 Weighted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) of Respiratory Symptom by Urinary Arsenic Concentration (N = 2132)

From: Low-moderate arsenic exposure and respiratory in American Indian communities in the Strong Heart Study

 Inorganic Plus Methylated Arsenic Species μg/g creatinineP-trendb
Tertile 1
≤7.0a
Tertile 2
7.1–13.9a
Tertile 3
≥14.0a
75th vs. 25th Percentile
Coughc/No cough191/690169/555116/406476/1651 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)0.87 (0.70, 1.09)0.69 (0.51, 0.93)0.82 (0.69, 0.98)0.03
 Model 21.00 (Ref)0.86 (0.69, 1.06)0.64 (0.48, 0.87)0.79 (0.66, 0.93)0.006
 Model 31.00 (Ref)0.84 (0.68, 1.05)0.63 (0.47, 0.86)0.78 (0.65, 0.93)0.005
 Model 41.00 (Ref)0.84 (0.68, 1.05)0.63 (0.46, 0.85)0.77 (0.65, 0.92)0.004
Cough 4–6x per dayd/No114/768111/61479/446304/1828 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)0.97 (0.73, 1.28)0.86 (0.59, 1.26)0.96 (0.78, 1.18)0.71
 Model 21.00 (Ref)0.94 (0.71, 1.24)0.79 (0.54, 1.16)0.91 (0.73, 1.12)0.36
 Model 31.00 (Ref)0.94 (0.71, 1.25)0.80 (0.54, 1.17)0.92 (0.74, 1.13)0.44
 Model 41.00 (Ref)0.94 (0.71, 1.25)0.81 (0.55, 1.18)0.93 (0.75, 1.15)0.48
Phlegme/No117/765114/61170/455301/1831 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)1.19 (0.95, 1.49)1.06 (0.77, 1.47)1.09 (0.90, 1.31)0.37
 Model 21.00 (Ref)1.16 (0.93, 1.46)0.99 (0.71, 1.37)1.03 (0.86, 1.25)0.71
 Model 31.00 (Ref)1.18 (0.94, 1.49)1.01 (0.73, 1.41)1.05 (0.87, 1.27)0.57
 Model 41.00 (Ref)1.18 (0.94, 1.48)1.01 (0.72, 1.40)1.05 (0.87, 1.27)0.59
Shortness of breathf/No369/503363/355243/275975/1133 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)1.16 (0.98, 1.37)0.90 (0.72, 1.13)1.02 (0.88, 1.17)0.81
 Model 21.00 (Ref)1.16 (0.98, 1.37)0.88 (0.70, 1.11)1.00 (0.87, 1.15)0.97
 Model 31.00 (Ref)1.17 (0.98, 1.39)0.93 (0.73, 1.18)1.08 (0.93, 1.23)0.34
 Model 41.00 (Ref)1.18 (0.99, 1.40)0.94 (0.74, 1.20)1.08 (0.94, 1.25)0.28
Stop for breathg/No101/781151/574103/422355/1777 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)1.67 (1.35, 2.07)1.56 (1.18, 2.06)1.33 (1.11, 1.59)0.002
 Model 21.00 (Ref)1.66 (1.34, 2.05)1.52 (1.14, 2.01)1.30 (1.08, 1.55)0.005
 Model 31.00 (Ref)1.76 (1.42, 2.19)1.68 (1.26, 2.24)1.41 (1.19, 1.69)< 0.001
 Model 41.00 (Ref)1.76 (1.41, 2.19)1.64 (1.23, 2.20)1.40 (1.17, 1.67)< 0.001
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, education, site
  2. Model 2: further adjusted for smoking status and smoking pack-year
  3. Model 3: further adjusted for eGFR, tuberculosis, and BMI
  4. Model 4: sensitivity analysis: further adjusted for diabetes
  5. aTertiles are range; calculated based on overall population; sum of inorganic and methylated species μg/g creatinine
  6. bP-trend calculated modeling log-arsenic as continuous
  7. cDo you usually have a cough?
  8. dDo you usually cough as much as 4–6 times/day, 4 or more days/week?
  9. eDo you usually bring up phlegm when you cough?
  10. fAre you troubled by shortness of breath when hurrying on the level or walking up a slight hill?
  11. gDo you ever have to stop for breath while walking about 100 yards or a few minutes on the level?