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Table 3 Generalized estimating equation analysis of ≥ 2 repeated measurements of inflammatory, oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation markers over 4 years

From: Longitudinal follow-up of health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials: a panel study

 ControlRisk Level 1Risk Level 2GEE analysis coefficient B (SE)
Model 1Model 2
Variablesa.NMean ± SDNMean ± SDNMean ± SDRL1*TimeRL2*TimeRL*Time
FeNO (ppb) 2nd7022.07 ± 12.948118.93 ± 9.56623.59 ± 14.790.16 (0.80)-1.05 (0.96)-0.55 (0.48)
FeNO (ppb) 3rd7219.81 ± 13.097315.95 ± 8.146920.33 ± 11.58
FeNO (ppb) 4th7813.33 ± 8.316712.32 ± 8.126515.88 ± 11.02
FeNO (ppb) 5th6516.99 ± 11.565217.97 ± 10.35517.1 ± 11.51
CC16(ng/ml) 1st345.03 ± 1.42505.77 ± 1.85445.17 ± 1.540.26 (0.157)0.33 (0.149) 0.17 (0.074)
CC16 (ng/ml) 2nd735.7 ± 2.41815.27 ± 2.06675.14 ± 2.19
CC16 (ng/ml) 3rd739.01 ± 2.76749.52 ± 3.08729.06 ± 3.52
CC16 (ng/ml) 4th796.29 ± 2.26686.39 ± 2.77656.02 ± 2.71
CC16 (ng/ml) 5th634.46 ± 2.61514.02 ± 3.24564.18 ± 2.68
NF-kB (Serum) (pg/ml) 1st330.53 ± 0.22510.54 ± 0.2430.6 ± 0.240.029 (0.026)0.016(0.028)0.001(0.014)
NF-kB (Serum) (pg/ml) 2nd731.09 ± 0.64820.85 ± 0.52670.85 ± 0.58
NF-kB (Serum) (pg/ml) 3rd670.73 ± 0.22710.79 ± 0.27690.74 ± 0.24
NF-kB (Serum) (pg/ml) 4th770.48 ± 0.12660.5 ± 0.16650.48 ± 0.14
NF-kB (Serum) (pg/ml) 5th631.05 ± 0.4521.12 ± 0.45571.03 ± 0.42
NF-kB (EBC) (pg/ml) 1st330.9 ± 0.46520.88 ± 0.46460.8 ± 0.42-0.045 (0.025)-0.047 (0.024)-0.024 (0.012)
NF-kB (EBC) (pg/ml) 2nd750.71 ± 0.27810.63 ± 0.2680.64 ± 0.24
NF-kB (EBC) (pg/ml) 3rd730.87 ± 0.33741.03 ± 0.35711.02 ± 0.34
NF-kB (EBC) (pg/ml) 4th770.56 ± 0.17680.54 ± 0.15640.55 ± 0.11
NF-kB (EBC) (pg/ml) 5th651.19 ± 0.44521.13 ± 0.52571.08 ± 0.45
Urine 8-OHdG (ng/mL) 1st356.96 ± 4.09537.9 ± 3.83458.68 ± 4.09-0.242 (0.200)-0.092 (0.210)-0.06 (0.104)
Urine 8-OHdG (ng/mL) 2nd694.78 ± 3.07774.43 ± 2.76664.03 ± 3.07
Urine 8-OHdG (ng/mL) 3rd713.48 ± 2.55743.05 ± 1.89733.36 ± 2.73
Urine 8-OHdG (ng/mL) 4th784.96 ± 4.43675.71 ± 4.3636.83 ± 4.83
Urine 8-OHdG (ng/mL) 5th663.85 ± 2.68504.46 ± 2.72564.1 ± 3.04
plasma 8-OHdG (pg/mL) 1st1918.63 ± 9.623115.11 ± 8.832918.38 ± 10.67-0.162 (0.810)-0.596(0.694)-0.301(0.350)
plasma 8-OHdG (pg/mL) 2nd7317.26 ± 13.677617.9 ± 11.996520.75 ± 15.23
plasma 8-OHdG (pg/mL) 3rd7316.42 ± 6.77316.53 ± 6.87016.96 ± 6.69
plasma 8-OHdG (pg/mL) 4th7913.78 ± 6.046714.95 ± 7.316414.51 ± 6.35
plasma 8-OHdG (pg/mL) 5th6416.12 ± 6.865015.06 ± 5.845718.77 ± 7.87
EBC 8-isoPGF2 (pg/mL) 1st345.56 ± 2.01515.21 ± 1.65465.25 ± 1.730.565 (0.180) 0.341 (0.170) 0.179 (0.084)
EBC 8-isoPGF2 (pg/mL) 2nd724.15 ± 2.02823.96 ± 1.61664.2 ± 1.65
EBC 8-isoPGF2 (pg/mL) 3rd7211.36 ± 6.887411.5 ± 7.557212.62 ± 7.46
EBC 8-isoPGF2 (pg/mL) 4th784.38 ± 2.19674.58 ± 2.61654.5 ± 2.35
EBC 8-isoPGF2 (pg/mL) 5th652.45 ± 1.76522.37 ± 1.67572.52 ± 1.79
Urine N7-MedG (ug/mL) 3rd712.23 ± 1.98742.1 ± 1.81732.22 ± 1.990.430 (0.408)0.362 (0.457)0.198 (0.225)
Urine N7-MedG (ug/mL) 4th785.72 ± 3.67677.13 ± 4.9646.43 ± 4.01
Urine N7-MedG (ug/mL) 5th665.81 ± 4.34527.42 ± 4.58565.41 ± 4.23
  1. a.times of measurements (1st: at baseline; 2nd: at 6 months later; 3rd: at 18 months later; 4th: at 30 months later; 5th: at 42 months later)
  2. p<0.01; 0.01<p<0.05
  3. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: FeNO) includes main effects of sex, smoking, asthma, and rhinitis.
  4. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: CC16) includes main effects of sex, smoking, and chewing betel nut.
  5. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: NF-kB (Serum)) includes main effects of sex, smoking, and education.
  6. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: NF-kB (EBC)) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  7. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: Urine 8-OHdG) includes main effects of sex, smoking, valvular heart disease, and folliculitis.
  8. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: plasma 8-OHdG) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  9. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: EBC 8-isoPGF2) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  10. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: Urine N7-MedG) includes main effects of sex, smoking, chewing betel nut, chronic bronchitis, and pigmentation.
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