Skip to main content

Table 7 Generalized estimating equation analysis of ≥ 2 repeated measurements of cardiovascular disease markers over 4 years

From: Longitudinal follow-up of health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials: a panel study

 ControlRisk Level 1Risk Level 2GEE analysis coefficient B (SE)
Model 1Model 2
VariablesaNMean ± SDNMean ± SDNMean ± SDRL1*TimeRL2*TimeRL1*Time
paraoxonase (unit/ml) 1st341121.64 ± 401.63511196.94 ± 488.25441205.68 ± 390.9-10.619 (14.943)-18.242 (12.892)-9.259 (6.455)
paraoxonase (unit/ml) 2nd74900.4 ± 337.1182920.9 ± 358.0767936.96 ± 312.4
paraoxonase (unit/ml) 3rd73869.72 ± 338.3674951.92 ± 298.7872915.69 ± 292.91
paraoxonase (unit/ml) 4th79830.34 ± 325.8968920.14 ± 352.6465851.78 ± 314.39
paraoxonase (unit/ml) 5th64779.12 ± 300.6152872.7 ± 341.3357847.03 ± 286.93
SDNN (ms) 1st3439.09 ± 12.025245.91 ± 17.254543.57 ± 15.45-1.541 (0.873)-1.614 (0.887)-0.817 (0.444)
SDNN (ms) 2nd7539.59 ± 16.068143.57 ± 18.716744.33 ± 17.26
SDNN (ms) 3rd7343.64 ± 18.827443.92 ± 17.187144.2 ± 18.42
SDNN (ms) 4th8039.25 ± 16.216640.1 ± 14.126539.35 ± 17.8
SDNN (ms) 5th6239.6 ± 16.475142.11 ± 16.315737.65 ± 13.69
RMSSD (ms) 1st3425.07 ± 11.065232.92 ± 14.964631.02 ± 15.77-1.234 (0.716)-1.203(0.763)-0.596 (0.383)
RMSSD (ms) 2nd7327.4 ± 13.688131.46 ± 18.86630.56 ± 16.39
RMSSD (ms) 3rd7229.34 ± 14.527328.5 ± 15.217028.84 ± 14.93
RMSSD (ms) 4th7924.13 ± 11.426727.09 ± 13.86424.62 ± 12.9
RMSSD (ms) 5th6523.6 ± 10.295125.54 ± 12.355724.88 ± 12.31
VLF (ms2) 1st34595.94 ± 546.5751652.99 ± 516.3544568.88 ± 381.44-35.240 (35.351)-24.379 (33.075)-12.450 (16.564)
VLF (ms2) 2nd74572.78 ± 560.2879655.26 ± 636.0766642.27 ± 536.73
VLF (ms2) 3rd71573.79 ± 543.6370546.25 ± 448.165561.91 ± 539.93
VLF (ms2) 4th78510.31 ± 421.4867646.18 ± 601.761520.77 ± 495.83
VLF (ms2) 5th59642.16 ± 641.3549576.27 ± 52255532.74 ± 510.33
LF (ms2) 1st35611.56 ± 480.1452694.45 ± 613.3244751.32 ± 739-14.202 (30.830)-53.531 (32.371)-25.967 (16.115)
LF (ms2) 2nd73447.93 ± 386.2279575.7 ± 544.7565598.24 ± 536.82
LF (ms2) 3rd71486.59 ± 495.9673554.67 ± 533.9869611.94 ± 594.38
LF (ms2) 4th78424.3 ± 419.466522.92 ± 448.8162508.42 ± 484.99
LF (ms2) 5th62560.55 ± 540.7950657.62 ± 554.2157465.33 ± 445.06
HF (ms2) 1st34235.81 ± 236.0250236.19 ± 17145296.39 ± 254.195.993 (10.816)1.368 (12.301)0.841 (6.119)
HF (ms2) 2nd73225.51 ± 189.9777259.41 ± 226.3564234.28 ± 141.02
HF (ms2) 3rd70230.99 ± 202.3670261.96 ± 242.8468281.85 ± 236.15
HF (ms2) 4th76185.35 ± 171.3965263.85 ± 246.163253.78 ± 271.83
HF (ms2) 5th62193.68 ± 165.3550254.4 ± 219.2656192.98 ± 167.61
LF/HF ratio 1st353.34 ± 1.96513.04 ± 2.57453.93 ± 3.620.026 (0.149)-202 (0.162)-0.105 (0.081)
LF/HF ratio 2nd732.55 ± 2.09782.69 ± 2.46662.96 ± 2.53
LF/HF ratio 3rd712.55 ± 2.51732.68 ± 2.56723.05 ± 2.83
LF/HF ratio 4th772.76 ± 2.53632.35 ± 1.79622.75 ± 2.51
LF/HF ratio 5th613.09 ± 2.47513.59 ± 3.21563.23 ± 2.74
  1. atimes of measurements (1st: at baseline; 2nd: at 6 months later; 3rd: at 18 months later; 4th: at 30 months later; 5th: at 42 months later)
  2. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: paraoxonase) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  3. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: SDNN) includes main effects of age, sex, smoking, chewing betel nut, and education.
  4. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: RMSSD) includes main effects of age, sex, smoking, chewing betel nut, and education.
  5. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: VLF) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  6. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: LF) includes main effects of age, sex, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and education.
  7. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: HF) includes main effects of age, sex, and smoking.
  8. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: LF/HF ratio) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
\