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Table 8 Generalized estimating equation analysis of ≥ 2 repeated measurements of pulmonary function over 4 years

From: Longitudinal follow-up of health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials: a panel study

 ControlRisk Level 1Risk Level 2GEE analysis coefficient B(SE)
Model 1Model 2
VariablesaNMean ± SDNMean ± SDNMean ± SDRL1*TimeRL2*TimeRL1*Time
FVC (%) 1st34104.36 ± 10.8653106.17 ± 13.2646104.54 ± 13.21.164 (0.071)0.468 (0.715)0.269 (0.356)
FVC (%) 2nd74110.53 ± 20.5981109.51 ± 14.5168110.02 ± 15.39
FVC (%) 3rd73106.18 ± 14.5674107.66 ± 12.0572104.48 ± 11.86
FVC (%) 4th77108.14 ± 17.7467110.75 ± 14.6264107.49 ± 13.07
FVC (%) 5th65106.06 ± 15.6752112.57 ± 15.9357107.94 ± 13.34
FEV1.0/FVC (%) 1st3479.91 ± 7.245382.23 ± 5.54681.32 ± 6.43-0.269 (0.328)-0.084 (0.332)-0.05 (1.673)
FEV1.0/FVC (%)2nd7481.43 ± 6.548181.59 ± 4.926881.47 ± 5.78
FEV1.0/FVC (%) 3rd7380.49 ± 6.17480.67 ± 5.457282.02 ± 5.73
FEV1.0/FVC (%) 4th7779.46 ± 6.936779.47 ± 5.436378.87 ± 6.07
FEV1.0/FVC (%) 5th6580.34 ± 6.225278.43 ± 5.565779.57 ± 6.01
MMF (%) 1st3483.29 ± 27.745388.53 ± 21.094684.69 ± 22.790.737 (1.084)0.694 (1.082)0.346 (0.542)
MMF (%) 2nd7491.41 ± 25.028187.84 ± 20.436891.6 ± 27.21
MMF (%) 3rd7382.13 ± 22.357483.45 ± 19.687286.99 ± 21.13
MMF (%) 4th7881.63 ± 20.936781.69 ± 20.386479.1 ± 22.4
MMF (%) 5th6581.28 ± 21.855279.7 ± 21.175780.38 ± 22.13
PEFR (%) 1st3499.03 ± 19.7953102.48 ± 13.824699.93 ± 14.530.663 (0.889)0.746 (0.962)0.413 (0.480)
PEFR (%) 2nd74101.91 ± 17.981102.86 ± 18.5668105.52 ± 20.51
PEFR (%) 3rd7398.48 ± 15.6974105.89 ± 14.972103.23 ± 16.68
PEFR (%) 4th7894.96 ± 17.8167104.76 ± 12.956499.08 ± 18.79
PEFR (%) 5th6598.62 ± 15.3552104.23 ± 13.7357102 ± 20.13
  1. a. times of measurements (1st: at baseline; 2nd: at 6 months later; 3rd: at 18 months later; 4th: at 30 months later; 5th: at 42 months later)
  2. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: FVC) includes main effects of sex, smoking, allergic dermatitis, and education.
  3. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: FEV1.0/FVC (%)) includes main effects of age, sex, smoking, asthma, and arrhythmia.
  4. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: MMF (%)) includes main effects of sex, smoking, chronic bronchitis, and angina pectoris.
  5. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: PEFR (%)) includes main effects of sex, smoking, chronic bronchitis, and angina pectoris.