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Table 3 The Effect of PM2.5 on Monthly Mortality Rate

From: The impact of PM2.5 on mortality in older adults: evidence from retirement of coal-fired power plants in the United States

 First StageSecond Stage
PM2.5 (μg/m3)Mortality Rate
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Shut Down Indicator−2.11***
(− 2.78 - -1.44)
−2.13***
(− 2.82 - -1.44)
−2.13***
(− 2.84 - -1.42)
   
PM2.5 (μg/m3)   6.62***
(3.05–10.19)
6.45***
(2.93–9.96)
7.17***
(3.50–10.85)
Weather ControlsNYYNYY
Socioeconomic ControlsNNYNNY
County Fixed EffectsYYYYYY
Month Fixed EffectsYYYYYY
F-Statistics36.4341.9936.93
Observations827482748274827482748274
  1. Notes: This table reports the instrumental variable regression coefficients and standard errors. Retirement of coal-fired power plants is used as the instrumental variables for monthly PM2.5 concentrations. The dependent variable is the monthly standardized mortality rate per 100, 000 people. Columns 1–3 report the first stage regression results, and columns 4–6 report the second stage results. Weather controls include temperature, dew point, and barometric pressure. Socioeconomic controls include median household income and poverty rate. Standard errors are clustered at the state level. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01