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Table 2 Mortality risk ratios (95% CI) associated with a 10 μg/m3 increase in 12-month average PM2.5: Base and SES-Adjusted models, by cause of death, US 2000–2008

From: The impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on specific causes of death: exposure-response curves and effect modification among 53 million U.S. Medicare beneficiaries

Causes of DeathPM2.5Non-Traffica PM2.5
Base ModelbSES-AdjustedcBase ModeldSES-Adjustede
All Causes1.235 (1.229,1.242)1.050 (1.044,1.056)1.075 (1.067,1.082)1.015 (1.008,1.022)
 Non-accidental1.244 (1.238,1.251)1.051 (1.045,1.057)1.070 (1.062,1.077)1.014 (1.007,1.021)
 Accidental0.922 (0.891,0.955)0.998 (0.960,1.037)1.001 (0.956,1.047)1.018 (0.972,1.066)
All Cardiovascular1.683 (1.669,1.696)1.088 (1.078,1.098)1.178 (1.165,1.191)1.016 (1.005,1.028)
 IHD1.975 (1.954,1.996)1.126 (1.112,1.140)1.258 (1.239,1.277)1.027 (1.011,1.043)
 CBV1.955 (1.919,1.992)1.126 (1.103,1.150)1.270 (1.238,1.303)1.057 (1.029,1.085)
 CHF1.116 (1.082,1.150)0.986 (0.953,1.021)1.007 (0.966,1.050)0.970 (0.930,1.012)
All Respiratory1.241 (1.223,1.260)1.056 (1.038,1.074)1.048 (1.026,1.070)0.989 (0.968,1.010)
 COPD1.045 (1.023,1.067)1.023 (0.999,1.047)1.005 (0.977,1.033)0.998 (0.969,1.027)
 Pneumonia1.769 (1.721,1.819)1.078 (1.044,1.114)1.184 (1.138,1.233)0.943 (0.905,0.982)
All Cancer1.160 (1.147,1.172)1.025 (1.012,1.038)1.054 (1.038,1.069)1.016 (1.001,1.031)
 Lung cancer1.078 (1.056,1.100)0.995 (0.972,1.018)1.009 (0.981,1.038)0.986 (0.958,1.014)
  1. Abbreviations: IHD ischemic heart disease, CBV cerebrovascular disease, CHF congestive heart failure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SES socio-economic status, PM2.5 fine particle, aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm
  2. a Non-traffic PM2.5 estimated as the residual of PM2.5 regressed on NO2 concentrations for each ZIP code
  3. b Estimated using Cox PH models with strata for age (1 year age categories with 90+ year old as one category), race (white, non-white), sex (male, female) and ZIP Code (41,630 ZIP codes). Results are expressed as risk ratio and 95% CIs per 10 μg/m3 increase in 12-month average PM2.5
  4. c Estimated using Cox PH models with strata for age, race, sex, ZIP code, SES
  5. d Two-stage analysis: (1) regression of 12-month PM2.5 on NO2 and (2) residuals of stage 1 (as non-traffic PM2.5) as the exposure measure in Cox PH model with strata for age, race, sex, ZIP code
  6. e Two-stage analysis: (1) regression of 12-month PM2.5 on NO2 and (2) residuals of stage 1 (as non-traffic PM2.5) as the exposure measure in Cox PH model with strata for age, race, sex, ZIP code, SES