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Table 2 All-age and age-standardized summary exposure values for occupational risk factors, 1990, and 2017 in China, with mean percentage change for 1990–2017

From: The disease burden attributable to 18 occupational risks in China: an analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017

Occupational risksAll-age SEVsAge-standardized SEVs
19902017Percentage change (%)19902017Percentage change (%)
Asthmagens14.18 (11.46–17.52)13.35 (11.15–15.77)−5.84(−19.48–10.57)14.15 (11.43–17.33)10.77 (9.04–12.74)−23.89(−34.57--12.36)
Ergonomic factors21.04 (19.22–22.91)16.62 (14.42–19.04)−20.99(−32.18--9.47)20.97 (19.21–22.75)13.40 (11.66–15.30)−36.10(−44.96--26.78)
Carcinogens
 Arsenic0.32 (0.13–0.55)0.55 (0.22–0.92)67.96 (54.02–83.30)0.35 (0.14–0.59)0.40 (0.16–0.67)12.88 (3.53–23.23)
 Asbestos0.30 (0.22–0.43)0.70 (0.62–0.76)131.64 (52.45–229.15)0.43 (0.32–0.59)0.51 (0.45–0.56)20.10(−19.30–64.12)
 Benzene0.50 (0.31–0.88)0.67 (0.40–1.19)34.52 (27.40–43.40)0.46 (0.28–0.82)0.57 (0.34–1.02)22.65 (16.16–30.74)
 Beryllium0.09 (0.08–0.09)0.13 (0.13–0.13)51.82 (46.12–57.95)0.09 (0.09–0.09)0.09 (0.09–0.10)1.80(−1.99–5.95)
 Cadmium0.17 (0.16–0.18)0.28 (0.26–0.31)67.92 (55.20–81.64)0.18 (0.18–0.19)0.21 (0.19–0.22)12.83 (4.22–22.04)
 Chromium0.34 (0.32–0.35)0.60 (0.55–0.65)78.75 (63.86–94.15)0.36 (0.35–0.38)0.43 (0.40–0.47)20.18 (10.22–30.54)
 DEE1.41 (1.36–1.46)2.41 (2.28–2.55)71.01 (60.03–82.29)1.52 (1.47–1.58)1.75 (1.65–1.85)14.92 (7.51–22.45)
 Formaldehyde0.78 (0.74–0.81)1.02 (0.92–1.11)30.80 (18.62–44.18)0.73 (0.69–0.76)0.87 (0.79–0.94)19.28 (8.09–31.25)
 Nickel0.36 (0.12–0.94)0.54 (0.18–1.42)51.27 (40.12–64.95)0.39 (0.13–1.01)0.39 (0.13–1.03)1.63(−5.88–10.79)
 PAHs0.68 (0.65–0.70)1.19 (1.10–1.28)76.01 (61.72–90.71)0.73 (0.70–0.76)0.86 (0.80–0.93)18.33 (8.70–28.24)
 Silica3.20 (1.68–6.99)4.49 (2.30–9.68)40.16 (29.8–51.94)3.45 (1.81–7.54)3.25 (1.67–7.01)−5.75(−12.79–2.12)
 Sulfuric acid0.76 (0.55–1.31)1.20 (0.86–2.12)58.34 (47.62–69.35)0.82 (0.59–1.41)0.87 (0.62–1.53)6.32(−0.87–13.70)
 Trichloroethylene0.19 (0.18–0.19)0.34 (0.32–0.36)80.12 (69.16–93.03)0.20 (0.20–0.21)0.24 (0.23–0.26)21.05 (13.63–29.70)
Noise8.11 (7.67–8.57)12.30 (11.75–12.95)51.73 (46.79–57.63)9.23 (8.73–9.83)9.24 (8.82–9.76)0.12(−2.85–3.28)
PGFs8.30 (6.88–10.32)12.12 (10.08–14.70)46.09 (35.82–55.38)9.28 (7.72–11.42)9.18 (7.7–11.22)−1.10(−4.69–2.89)
  1. SEV Summary exposure value, UI Uncertain interval, PGFs Particulate matter, gases, and fumes, DEE Diesel engine exhaust, PAHs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons