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Table 3 Deaths and age-standardized death rate for occupational risk factors, 1990, and 2017 in China, with mean percentage change for 1990–2017

From: The disease burden attributable to 18 occupational risks in China: an analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017

Occupational risksDeathsAge-standardized death rate (per 100,000)
19902017Percentage change (%)19902017Percentage change (%)
Asthmagens3039 (1765–4108)792 (631–992)−73.9(−82.0--49.8)0.30 (0.17–0.42)0.04 (0.03–0.05)−87.1(−91.3--74.6)
Carcinogens26,546 (20385–33,149)68,396 (53282–85,467)157.7 (121.5–200.4)3.00 (2.33–3.70)3.50 (2.75–4.35)16.8(− 0.1–36.8)
 Arsenic1324 (514–2188)3725 (1402–6118)181.4 (149.0–218.6)0.14 (0.05–0.23)0.18 (0.07–0.29)29.9 (15.1–47.1)
 Asbestos5796 (3962–8718)24,264 (16700–32,287)318.7 (185.4–451.4)0.78 (0.54–1.17)1.36 (0.94–1.81)73.6 (20.0–126.9)
 Benzene380 (107–643)372 (108–625)− 2.22(− 15.9–23.3)0.03 (0.01–0.05)0.02 (0.01–0.03)−32.0(− 42.0--15.0)
 Beryllium57 (47–68)149 (122–179)161.4 (132.5–188.4)0.01 (0.00–0.01)0.01 (0.01–0.01)20.7 (8.2–33.0)
 Cadmium129 (109–150)364 (302–434)182.1 (148.9–219.8)0.01 (0.01–0.02)0.02 (0.01–0.02)30.2 (15.2–47.3)
 Chromium244 (216–277)727 (625–830)197.5 (163.3–235.1)0.03 (0.02–0.03)0.03 (0.03–0.04)37.3 (21.8–54.1)
 DEE2762 (2418–3125)8083 (6960–9319)192.7 (155.7–224.9)0.28 (0.25–0.32)0.38 (0.33–0.44)35.1 (18.6–49.7)
 Formaldehyde408 (317–505)391 (306–494)− 4.2(− 20.7–14.5)0.03 (0.03–0.04)0.02 (0.02–0.03)− 41.1(− 49.9--31.6)
 Nickel1488 (292–3334)3803 (762–8450)155.5 (126.1–188.6)0.15 (0.03–0.34)0.18 (0.04–0.40)18.0 (4.4–33.1)
 PAHs852 (722–980)2500 (2092–2937)193.5 (157.4–231.2)0.09 (0.07–0.10)0.12 (0.10–0.14)35.5 (19.4–52.8)
 Silica13,260 (8742–18,469)25,073 (14869–35,605)89.1 (51.3–123.9)1.46 (0.97–2.02)1.23 (0.74–1.73)− 15.7(− 34.0–1.0)
 Sulfuric acid419 (173–778)719 (301–1348)71.8 (56.5–91.2)0.04 (0.02–0.08)0.03 (0.01–0.06)− 21.3(− 28.4--12.4)
 Trichloroethylene4 (1–7)14 (3–26)285.4 (172.9–364.0)0.00 (0.00–0.00)0.00 (0.00–0.00)81.1 (27.8–118.2)
Injuries142,834 (120521–167,777)67,461 (57132–79,340)−52.8(−61.9--41.0)11.95 (10.10–14.02)3.84 (3.25–4.52)− 67.9(− 74.0--59.8)
PGFs240,075 (197593–281,136)187,184 (148439–228,139)−22.0(− 31.5--5.1)37.20 (29.5–44.73)11.36 (8.82–14.03)− 69.5(− 72.5--63.2)
All occupational risks412,493 (362216–461,292)323,833 (283780–369,061)− 21.5(− 29.5--10.8)52.45 (44.51–60.48)18.74 (16.17–21.56)− 64.3(− 67.5--59.3)
  1. UIs Uncertainty intervals, PGFs Particulate matter, gases, and fumes, DEE Diesel engine exhaust, PAHs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons