Skip to main content

Table 2 Concentrations of fluoride in maternal urine, serum, and amniotic fluid by community water fluoridation concentration

From: Maternal and fetal exposures to fluoride during mid-gestation among pregnant women in northern California

 Fluoridation below recommended concentrations(< 0.7 mg/L)Fluoridation in accordance with federal recommendations (> = 0.7 mg/L)
N2424
Fluoride concentrationsMean ± SDMin, MaxMean ± SD Min, Max
Community water0.20 ± 0.180.02, 0.600.80 ± 0.092*0.69, 1.00
Maternal urine0.52 ± 0.280.12, 1.250.74 ± 0.44*0.060, 1.70
Maternal urine adjusted for specific gravity0.57± 0.350.17, 1.630.69 ± 0.34# 0.073, 1.66
Maternal serum0.011 ± 0.00860.0040, 0.0400.021 ± 0.015*0.0038, 0.059
Amniotic fluid0.013 ± 0.00520.0061, 0.0230.021 ± 0.014#*0.0063, 0.058
  1. *The high fluoridation mean concentration is significantly different from the low fluoridation mean concentration at the 0.05 concentration using Welch’s t-test
  2. #N = 23