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Table 3 Attributable deaths in Milan for natural, respiratory and cardiovascular causes from 2003 to 2006: estimates and 90% confidence intervals calculated according to different counterfactual scenarios of PM10 reduction

From: Assessing short-term impact of PM10 on mortality using a semiparametric generalized propensity score approach

EstimandNatural DeathsRespiratory DeathsCardiovascular Deaths
 Estimate90% CIEstimate90% CIEstimate90% CI
AD(20)2537(1273, 3655)577(226, 900)1000(464, 1488)
AD(40)1157(689, 1645)312(210, 418)771(580, 961)
DAD(40)1857(1479, 2233)403(293, 504)1014(815, 1221)
DAD(50)1481(1212, 1735)325(251, 398)828(690, 960)
  1. AD(20): deaths attributable to daily exposure levels above 20 μg/m3, setting the counterfactual exactly to 20 μg/m3.
  2. AD(40): deaths attributable to daily exposure levels above 40 μg/m3, setting the counterfactual exactly to 40 μg/m3.
  3. DAD(40): deaths attributable to daily exposure levels above 40 μg/m3, sampling the counterfactuals from the exposure distribution below 40 μg/m3.
  4. DAD(50): deaths attributable to daily exposure levels above 50 μg/m3, sampling the counterfactuals from the exposure distribution below 50 μg/m3