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Table 2 Univariate and Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis of Potential Risk Factors for Holoprosencephaly

From: Prenatal exposure to pesticides and risk for holoprosencephaly: a case-control study

Variable OR (95%CI) aOR (95%CI)a
Maternal age
 < 35 years Ref Ref
 ≥ 35 1.11 (0.49, 2.60) 0.76 (0.22, 2.49)
Alcohol consumptionb
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.47 (0.19, 1.08) 0.35 (0.11, 1.05)
     Before 3 months
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.45 (0.19, 1.02) 0.36 (0.12, 1.06)
     1st Trimester
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.59 (0.18, 1.87) 1.05 (0.23, 4.53)
     2nd Trimester
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.34 (0.03, 2.48) 0.52 (0.02, 6.65)
     3rd Trimester
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.32 (0.07, 1.29) 0.35 (0.04, 1.83)
Smoking
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 2.01 (0.55, 9.18) 1.07 (0.17, 6.64)
     Before 3 months
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 2.01 (0.55, 9.18) 1.07 (0.17, 6.64)
     1st Trimester
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 2.13 (0.36, 22.35) 1.17 (0.14, 10.63)
     2nd Trimester
      No Ref NC
      Yes 0.34 (0.006, 6.61) NC
     3rd Trimester
      No Ref NC
      Yes 0.34 (0.006, 6.61) NC
Folic acid supplement intakec
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.17 (0.008, 1.20) 0.19 (0.01, 1.42)
     Before 3 months
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.44 (0.19, 1.02) 0.46 (0.18, 1.13)d
     1st month
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.20 (0.06, 0.59) 0.27 (0.08, 0.86)d
     2nd month
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.32 (0.06, 1.32) 0.60 (0.10, 3.28)
     3rd month
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.36 (0.09, 1.32) 0.98 (0.19, 5.89)
     2nd trimester
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.39 (0.11, 1.30) 0.85 (0.20, 3.94)
     3rd trimester
      No Ref Ref
      Yes 0.58 (0.18, 1.78) 0.92 (0.26, 3.53)
Time since delivery to survey (median years) 1.06 (1.00, 1.14) NC
  1. Note: OR Crude odds ratio, aOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence Interval, NC Not calculated. Adjusted odds ratios for some variables (except for time since delivery to survey) were not calculated because of low rates of exposure to the potential risk factors and/or low ascertainment that did not permit estimations of the risk parameters
  2. a Models adjusted for maternal consumption of vitamin or supplement containing folic acid(at least 400 mcg during the 3 months before pregnancy and/or first month of pregnancy), and time since birth to completion of survey (continuous in years)
  3. bOne drink = 1 12 oz. beer, 1 glass 4 oz. wine, or 1 oz. or 1 shot liquor (alone or in a mixed drink)
  4. cVitamin or supplement containing at least 400 mg folic acid or prenatal vitamin; intake during the three months before pregnancy and/or during pregnancy
  5. dOdds ratios are from logistic regression models adjusted for time since birth to survey completion