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Table 3 Pesticide Exposures and Risk for Holoprosencephaly

From: Prenatal exposure to pesticides and risk for holoprosencephaly: a case-control study

Pesticide Exposure Cases (%) Controls (%) OR (95%CI) aOR (95%CI)a
Personal insect repellentsb
 3 months before pregnancy
  No 22 (50.8) 30 (68.2) Ref Ref
  Yes 32 (49.2) 14 (31.8) 2.08 (0.95, 4.71) 2.76 (0.88, 9.16)
   Contained DEET
  No 1 (4.8) 4 (33.3) Ref NC
  Yes 15 (71.4) 7 (58.3) 8.58 (1.03, 185.33) NC
  Used repellent with and without DEET 5 (23.8) 1 (8.3) 20.0 (1.32, 962.18) NC
 During pregnancy
  No 32 (50.8) 30 (65.2) Ref Ref
  Yes 31 (49.2) 16 (34.8) 1.82 (0.84, 4.03) 2.89 (0.96, 9.50)
   Entire pregnancy
  No 54 (90.0) 44 (95.7) Ref NC
  Yes 6 (10.0) 2 (4.3) 2.44 (0.53, 17.25) NC
   First trimester
  No 50 (83.3) 42 (91.3) Ref Ref
  Yes 10 (16.7) 4 (8.7) 2.10 (0.65, 8.10) 1.46 (0.25, 7.76)
   Second trimester
  No 47 (78.3) 41 (89.1) Ref Ref
  Yes 13 (21.7) 5 (10.9) 2.67 (0.78, 7.56) 4.18 (1.06, 18.95)
   Third trimester
  No 49 (81.7) 39 (84.8) Ref Ref
  Yes 11 (18.3) 7 (15.2) 1.25 (0.45, 3.68) 2.54 (0.70, 9.72)
   Contained DEET
  No 4 (20.0) 5 (41.7) Ref NC
  Yes 11 (55.0) 5 (41.7) 2.75 (0.52, 16.04) NC
  Used repellent with and without DEET 5 (25.0) 2 (16.7) 3.13 (0.42, 31.44) NC
Weed killers outside homeb
 3 months before pregnancy
  No 51 (60.7) 39 (73.6) Ref Ref
  Yes 33 (29.3) 14 (26.4) 1.80 (0.86, 3.90) 1.81 (0.65, 5.10)
     During pregnancy     
  No 55 (64.7) 36 (69.2) Ref Ref
  Yes 30 (35.3) 16 (30.8) 1.23 (0.59, 2.60) 1.66 (0.60, 4.67)
Weed killers inside homeb
 3 months before pregnancy
  No 80 (95.2) 51 (96.2) Ref Ref
  Yes 4 (4.8) 2 (3.8) 1.28 (0.24, 9.44) 0.76 (0.03, 8.86)
 During pregnancy     
  No 77 (90.6) 51 (98.1) Ref Ref
  Yes 8 (9.4) 1 (1.9) 5.29 (0.93, 99.80) 5.15 (0.65, 107.01)
Treatments for lice and scabiesb,c
  No 83 (96.5) 50 (98.0) Ref Ref
  Yes 3 (3.5) 1 (2.0) 1.81 (0.22, 37.08) 1.62 (0.06, 42.44)
Pets inside homec
  No 24 (28.2) 20 (37.0) Ref Ref
  Yes 61 (71.8) 34 (63.0) 1.50 (0.72, 3.09) 1.71 (0.62, 4.97)
Type
 Dog
  No 38 (44.7) 27 (50.0) Ref Ref
  Yes 47 (55.3) 27 (50.0) 1.24 (0.62, 2.46) 1.15 (0.43, 3.06)
 Cat
  No 58 (68.2) 38 (70.4) Ref Ref
  Yes 27 (31.8) 16 (29.6) 1.11 (0.53, 2.35) 1.33 (0.45, 3.94)
 Small mammalc
  No 80 (94.1) 51 (94.4) Ref Ref
  Yes 5 (5.9) 3 (5.6) 1.06 (0.25, 5.36) 0.31 (0.01, 2.89)
 Bird
  No 84 (98.8) 54 (1.00) NC NC
  Yes 1 (1.2) 0 (0.0) NC NC
 Fish or reptile
  No 79 (92.9) 50 (92.6) Ref Ref
  Yes 6 (7.1) 4 (7.4) 0.95 (0.26, 3.87) 0.88 (0.11, 4.96)
 Other
  No 84 (98.8) 53 (98.1) Ref Ref
  Yes 1 (1.2) 1 (1.9) 0.63 (0.02, 16.18) 1.90 (0.07, 50.18)
Pesticides for petsb,c,e
  No 49 (64.5) 42 (79.2) Ref Ref
  Yes 27 (35.5) 11 (20.8) 2.10 (0.95, 4.89) 3.13 (0.69, 6.75)
 3 months before pregnancy
  No 55 (75.3) 43 (82.7) Ref Ref
  Yes 18 (24.7) 9 (17.3) 1.56 (0.65, 3.97) 1.44 (0.38, 5.39)
 During pregnancy
  No 52 (70.3) 45 (86.5) Ref Ref
  Yes 22 (29.7) 7 (13.5) 2.72 (1.11, 7.42) 3.84 (1.04, 16.32)
 First trimester     
  No 58 (86.6) 46 (92.0) Ref Ref
  Yes 9 (13.4) 4 (8.0) 1.78 (0.54, 6.92) 0.21 (0.009, 1.86)
 Second trimester
  No 58 (86.6) 47 (94.0) Ref Ref
  Yes 9 (13.4) 3 (6.0) 1.56 (0.83, 3.38) 1.02 (0.38, 2.61)
 Third trimester
  No 59 (88.1) 47 (94.0) Ref Ref
  Yes 8 (11.9) 3 (6.0) 1.29 (0.83, 2.16) 0.89 (0.42, 1.73)
 Personally apply products for pets
  No 59 (80.8) 47 (90.4) Ref Ref
  Yes 14 (19.2) 5 (9.6) 2.23 (0.79, 7.31) 1.22 (0.23, 6.05)
Regular encounter with horsec,f
  No 72 (96.0) 45 (97.8) Ref Ref
  Yes 3 (4.0) 1 (2.2) 1.88 (0.23, 28.54) 1.80 (0.07, 47.50)
Fly repellents for horses
  No 8 (88.9) 4 (1.00) Ref NC
  Yes 1 (11.1) 0 (0.0) 1.58 (0.05, 47.51) NC
Pest problemsc
  No 51 (63.0) 31 (63.3) Ref Ref
  Yes 30 (37.0) 18 (36.7) 1.01 (0.49, 2.13) 0.66 (0.21, 1.98)
 During entire pregnancy
  No 66 (81.5) 42 (87.5) Ref Ref
  Yes 15 (18.5) 6 (12.5) 1.59 (0.60, 4.75) 1.47 (0.33, 6.43)
 First trimester
  No 76 (93.8) 45 (93.8) Ref Ref
  Yes 5 (6.2) 3 (6.2) 0.99 (0.23, 4.99) 0.15 (0.005, 1.90)
 Second trimester
  No 77 (95.1) 42 (87.5) Ref NC
  Yes 4 (4.9) 6 (12.5) 0.36 (0.09, 1.34) NC
 Third trimester
  No 79 (97.5) 44 (91.7) Ref NC
  Yes 2 (2.5) 4 (8.3) 0.28 (0.04, 1.49) NC
Household pest control productsb,c,g
  No 36 (52.2) 31 (63.3) Ref Ref
  Yes 33 (47.8) 18 (36.7) 1.58 (0.75, 3.37) 2.60 (0.84, 8.68)
 3 months before pregnancy
  No 47 (75.8) 37 (77.1) Ref Ref
  Yes 15 (24.2) 11 (22.9) 1.07 (0.44, 2.66) 1.99 (0.52, 7.80)
 During pregnancy
  No 46 (71.9) 33 (71.7) Ref Ref
  Yes 18 (28.1) 13 (28.2) 0.99 (0.43, 2.34) 2.16 (0.62, 7.78)
 First trimester
  No 53 (82.8) 38 (82.6) Ref Ref
  Yes 11 (17.2) 8 (17.4) 0.99 (0.36, 2.77) 2.06 (0.49, 8.43)
 Second trimester
  No 53 (82.8) 36 (78.3) Ref Ref
  Yes 11 (17.2) 10 (21.7) 0.86 (0.53, 1.40) 1.27 (0.63, 2.51)
 Third trimester
  No 52 (81.2) 38 (82.6) Ref Ref
  Yes 12 (18.8) 8 (17.4) 1.03 (0.74, 1.45) 1.28 (0.76, 2.11)
Occupational exposures to pesticides and herbicides
 Maternal: 3 months before pregnancy
  No 53 (86.9) 33 (94.3) Ref Ref
  Yes 8 (13.1) 2 (5.7) 2.47 (0.45, 25.27) 1.95 (0.07, 52.19)
 Maternal: during pregnancy
  No 54 (90.0) 31 (91.2) Ref Ref
  Yes 6 (10.0) 3 (8.8) 1.15 (0.23, 7.58) 1.15 (0.11, 11.42)
 Paternalc
  No 43 (72.9) 30 (85.7) Ref Ref
  Yes 16 (27.1) 5 (14.3) 2.21 (0.68, 8.59) 2.39 (0.34, 20.58)
 Living next to an agricultural fieldc,h
  No 70 (82.4) 47 (87.0) Ref Ref
  Yes 15 (17.6) 7 (13) 1.44 (0.50, 4.49) 3.24 (0.94, 12.31)
  1. Note: OR Crude odds ratio, aOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence Interval, NC Not calculated, DEET N, N-diethyl meta toluamide. Adjusted odds ratios for some variables were not calculated because of low rates of exposure to the potential risk factors and/or low ascertainment that did not permit estimations of the risk parameters
  2. aAll odds ratios are from logistic regression models adjusted for maternal consumption of vitamin or supplement containing folic acid(at least 400 mcg during the 3 months before pregnancy and/or first month of pregnancy), and time since birth to completion of survey (continuous in years)
  3. bUse by mother or anyone in household
  4. cDuring the 3 months before pregnancy and/or during pregnancy
  5. dRabbit, gerbil, hamster, guinea pig, ferret, mouse
  6. eTo control for fleas, ticks or mites
  7. fOwn, lease, train or care for horse regularly (once a week or more) 3 month before pregnancy until birth
  8. gProducts to control for pests or insects such as bugs like ants, wasps or others in or outside the home
  9. hWithin 100 m, e.g. field next door or across the street, during the 3 months before pregnancy or 1st trimester