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Table 3 Multivariable linear regression of indoor air pollutants and associated differences in cardiometabolic outcomes

From: Indoor air pollution concentrations and cardiometabolic health across four diverse settings in Peru: a cross-sectional study

 All ParticipantsBiomass UsersNot Biomass Users
ModelEstimate (95% CI)Estimate (95% CI)Estimate (95% CI)
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)a
 Number of observations488237251
 PM2.51.51 (0.16, 2.86)*1.49 (−0.14, 3.12)1.08 (−2.85, 5.02)
 CO1.12 (− 0.55, 2.79)1.50 (− 0.52, 3.52)−1.72 (−5.70, 2.26)
 Multipollutant: PM2.51.60 (− 0.18, 3.39)1.22 (− 0.96, 3.40)1.55 (− 2.49, 5.59)
 Multipollutant: CO−0.17 (− 2.38, 2.03)0.50 (− 2.21, 3.20)−2.07 (−6.16, 2.01)
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)a
 Number of observations488237251
 PM2.51.39 (0.52, 2.25)*0.86 (− 0.18, 1.91)0.37 (− 2.13, 2.86)
 CO1.08 (0.01, 2.16)*0.91 (− 0.39, 2.20)−1.59 (−4.11, 0.92)
 Multipollutant: PM2.51.42 (0.28, 2.56)*0.67 (− 0.73, 2.07)0.76 (− 1.80, 3.32)
 Multipollutant: CO−0.06 (− 1.48, 1.35)0.35 (−1.38, 2.09)− 1.77 (− 4.36, 0.82)
Exhaled Carbon Monoxide (ppm)b
 Number of observations519247272
 PM2.52.05 (0.52, 3.57)*0.20 (−2.05, 2.46)5.00 (1.58, 8.41)*
 CO1.75 (− 0.10, 3.60)1.02 (− 1.24, 3.29)−1.51 (−3.94, 0.91)
 Multipollutant: PM2.51.90 (− 0.09, 3.89)−0.93 (− 3.90, 2.05)5.30 (1.81, 8.79)*
 Multipollutant: CO0.28 (−2.12, 2.68)1.49 (− 2.07, 5.04)−1.32 (− 4.72, 2.09)
C-reactive protein (mg/L)b
 Number of observations556260296
 PM2.5−0.58 (− 1.24, 0.09)−0.22 (− 0.98, 0.55)−2.03 (− 3.96, − 0.10)*
 CO−0.25 (− 1.06, 0.57)−0.10 (− 1.04, 0.84)−0.13 (− 2.06, 1.79)
 Multipollutant: PM2.5−0.76 (− 1.64, 0.11)−0.29 (− 1.32, 0.75)− 2.08 (− 4.05, − 0.11)*
 Multipollutant: CO0.36 (−0.71, 1.42)0.13 (−1.13, 1.39)0.26 (− 1.70, 2.21)
Hemoglobin A1c %b
 Number of observations549260289
 PM2.5− 0.05 (− 0.11, 0.01)−0.05 (− 0.13, 0.02)0.02 (− 0.15, 0.20)
 CO−0.05 (− 0.13, 0.02)−0.08 (− 0.17, 0.02)0.05 (− 0.12, 0.23)
 Multipollutant: PM2.5−0.03 (− 0.12, 0.05)−0.02 (− 0.12, 0.08)0.01 (− 0.17, 0.20)
 Multipollutant: CO−0.03 (− 0.13, 0.08)−0.06 (− 0.19, 0.07)0.05 (− 0.13, 0.23)
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, high altitude, and household wealth
  2. bAdjusted for age, sex, BMI, high altitude, and household wealth
  3. *p-value < 0.05