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Table 3 Hazard ratios for the occurrence of an appropriate ICD discharge among 10,320 patients in the ICD database stratified by baseline characteristics

From: Do acute changes in ambient air pollution increase the risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators?

Baseline characteristicHazard Ratio (95%CI)P-value (2-sided)
Age (year)1.01 (1.00,1.01)0.0002
Male1.60 (1.41,1.81)< 0.0001
Smoke status
 Current cigarette smoker1.15 (1.00,1.31)0.049
 Former smoker1.14 (1.03,1.25)0.009
 Never smokerReferent 
Primary heart disease
 Ischemic0.96 (0.87, 1.07)0.45
 Non-IschemicReferent 
Implant indication
 Primary prevention0.76 (0.68,0.85)< 0.0001
 Secondary prevention1.57 (1.39, 1.76)< 0.0001
 Replacementreferent 
 Atrial fibrillation1.17 (1.06,1.28)0.0011
Documented ventricular arrhythmia prior to ICD implant
 Tachycardia, fibrillation, cardiac arrest2.06 (1.86,2.27)< 0.0001
 Non-sustained tachycardia1.86 (1.63,2.13)< 0.0001
 NoneReferent 
Left ventricular ejection fraction
 ≤ 30%1.00 (0.88,1.13)1.00
 31–40%1.05 (0.90,1.21)0.54
 > 40%referent 
Medications
 β-adrenoreceptor antagonist1.06 (0.93,1.21)0.37
 ACE inhibitor or ARBa1.20 (1.06,1.35)0.0029
 Spironolactone1.07 (0.97,1.19)0.17
 Loop diuretics1.07 (0.98,1.17)0.14
 Digoxin1.17 (1.05,1.30)0.0033
 Amiodarone1.27 (1.15,1.42)< 0.0001
  1. aAngiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker