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Table 3 Estimated changes in fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) and hemoglobin A1c (percentage) levels per interquartile range increment of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 in all participants according to the presence of diabetes

From: Impacts of ambient air pollution on glucose metabolism in Korean adults: a Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey study

Pollutant Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)a HbA1c (percentage points)a
β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value
Total
PM10 (μg/m3) 0.22 (−0.31–0.75) 0.419 0.05 (0.00–0.10) 0.075
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 0.31 (−0.20–0.82) 0.227 0.07 (0.02–0.11)* 0.002
NO2 (ppb) 0.85 (0.23–1.47)* 0.006 0.01 (−0.02–0.02) 0.579
No diabetes
PM10 (μg/m3) 0.00 (−0.22–0.22) 0.729 0.04 (0.02–0.06)* p < 0.0001
PM2.5 (μg/m3) −0.09 (− 0.30–0.12) 0.383 0.06 (0.03–0.08)* p < 0.0001
NO2 (ppb) 0.36 (0.11–0.62)* 0.004 0.01 (−0.01–0.01) 0.618
Diabetes
PM10 (μg/m3) 3.28 (0.60–5.97)* 0.016 0.16 (−0.08–0.41) 0.194
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 2.83 (0.27–5.38)* 0.030 0.15 (−0.07–0.37) 0.186
NO2 (ppb) 3.32 (0.64–6.00)* 0.015 0.05 (−0.11–0.21) 0.529
  1. *p-value < 0.05. The level of fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) per interquartile range increment at a moving average of 0–6 days in PM10 and PM2.5 and 0–7 days in NO2. The level of HbA1c (percentage) per interquartile range increment at a moving average of 0–60 days for each pollutant. aModel 3, adjusted for sex, age, education level, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, daily mean temperature, and humidity. CI, confidence interval; PM10, particulate matter < 10 μm; PM2.5, particulate matter < 2.5 μm; NO2, nitrogen dioxide; ppb, parts per billion