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Table 1 Clinical and socioeconomic data from PD patients with and without occupational pesticide exposure

From: Occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of death in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an observational study in southern Brazil

VariableAll PatientsOccupational pesticide exposure?p valuea
YesNo
Baseline characteristics15020130 
 Female sex (n, %)81 (54%)9 (45%)72 (55.4%)0.53
 Age at study enrollment (in years, mean, SD)64.4 (11.7)63.2 (11.7)64.6 (11.8)0.61
 Lost to follow up (n, %)22 (14.7%)2 (10%)20 (15.4%)0.77
Disease status
 Age at symptom onset (mean, SD)56.5 (12.1)54.2 (10.9)56.8 (12.3)0.34
 Disease duration at study onset7.9 (5.2)9.0 (6.6)7.8 (5.0)0.45
 Symptom onset before 50 years (n, %)43 (28.7%)9 (45%)34 (26.2%)0.14
 Hoehn & Yahr Scale (mean, SD)2.5 (0.8)2.7 (0.9)2.5 (0.8)0.36
 Total UPDRS score51.6 (23.5)67.0 (28.9)49.5 (22.0)0.05
 Levodopa equivalent daily dose, mg (median, IQR)750 [509, 1074]775 [594, 1206]750 [500, 1067]0.67
 Charlson Comorbidity Index2 [1, 3]2 [1, 3]2 [1, 3]0.49
Exposure history
 Any smoking history (n, %)41 (27.3%)6 (30%)35 (26.9%)0.79
 Medium smoking history (10–30 pack-years)14 (9.3%)3 (15%)11 (8.5%)0.40
 Heavy smoking history (> 30 pack years)13 (8.7%)1 (5%)12 (9.2%)1.0
 Caffeine intake (at least 80 mg/day for 10 years)92 (61.3%)14 (70%)78 (60%)0.47
Socioeconomic status
 Patients in this subset (n)1051491 
 Education (fewer than 9 years, n, %)25 (23.8%)3 (22.2%)22 (25%)1.0
 Race (white)91.4%94.4%91.7%1.0
 Private health insurance coverage17.1%14.3%17.6%1.0
 Historical monthly income < minimum wage (when fully employed)9.5%0%17.6%0.12
 History of working predominately in agriculture9.5%21.4%7.7%0.13
  1. aFor dichotomous variables, p-value obtained from χ2 testing, or Fisher’s exact test for analyses with any values < 10. For continuous variables with normal distribution, p-value obtained from Welch’s two sample t-test (two-tailed). For continuous variables with non-normal distribution (as indicated by Shapiro-Wilk normality test), Wilcoxon signed rank test applied