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Table 4 Distribution (%) of Drug Use Criteria Overall and According to Early Life Exposure to PCE Exposure

From: Drug use disorder following early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

  Overall
N = 618
Exposed
N = 363
Unexposed
N = 255
n % n % n %
Drug Use Criteria
Hazardous use 66 10.7 43 11.9 23 9.0
Social/interpersonal problems related to use 29 4.7 20 5.5 9 3.5
Neglected major roles to use 29 4.7 21 5.8 8 3.1
Experienced withdrawal 50 8.1 29 8.0 21 8.2
Developed tolerance 54 8.7 34 9.4 20 7.8
Used larger amounts/longer 50 8.1 35 9.6 15 5.9
Repeated unsuccessful attempts to quit or control use 71 11.5 47 13.0 24 9.4
Much time spent using 59 9.6 38 10.5 21 8.2
Physical/psychological problems related to use 41 6.6 30 8.3 11 4.3
Activities given up to use 19 3.1 14 3.9 5 2.0
Developed craving 64 10.4 45 12.4 19 7.5