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Table 4 Multivariable-adjusted associations between Blood Pressure (BP) levels and air pollutant levels averaged in the week preceding the examination

From: Immune biomarkers link air pollution exposure to blood pressure in adolescents

  Systolic BP (mmHg) Diastolic BP (mmHg) Elevated BP
Air pollutant Effect size (95% CI) P value Effect size (95% CI) P value Odds ratio (95% CI) P value
PM2.5, per + 0.15 μg/m3 − 0.52 (− 2.96 to 1.91) 0.67 2.32 (0.61 to 4.02) 0.0085a 0.90 (0.56 to 1.44) 0.65
PAH456, per + 0.80 ng/m3 −1.20 (−3.68 to 1.29) 0.34 2.72 (0.95 to 4.50) 0.0030a 1.20 (0.72 to 1.99) 0.48
O3, per + 8.5 ppb 0.37 (−2.21 to 2.96) 0.77 −0.51 (−2.42 to 1.40) 0.60 1.03 (0.64 to 1.67) 0.90
CO, per + 0.10 ppm −0.83 (−3.06 to 1.39) 0.46 2.96 (1.44 to 4.49) 0.0002a 0.89 (0.59 to 1.34) 0.56
NO, per + 2 ppb −0.64 (−2.91 to 1.62) 0.58 2.42 (0.85 to 3.99) 0.0030a 0.90 (0.59 to 1.39) 0.63
NO2, per + 4 ppb −1.57 (−3.97 to 0.83) 0.20 3.87 (2.31 to 5.44) < 0.0001a 1.09 (0.67 to 1.77) 0.72
  1. Effect sizes reflect the change in BP level per 1-SD increase in air pollutant. Odds ratios for the risk of elevated BP were standardized as ORSD. Effect sizes and odds ratios were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, race, smoking and asthma status
  2. aRemained significant after correction for multiple comparison using the Holm-Bonferroni method