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Table 1 Main characteristics of subjects: demographic variables (age, sex); putative risk factors (smoking, diet, indoor, home, traffic, outdoor); genetic traits with modulating role (GSTM1, GSTT1), mediation variable (anti-B[a]PDE-DNA); outcomes (LTL and LmtDNAcn)

From: The effects of everyday-life exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on biological age indicators

FACTORS STRATA Number (row %) Mean ± St Dev
Age (years)    41.90 ± 9.03
Sex 0 = Females 285 (52.6)  
1 = Males 257 (47.4)  
Smoking a 0 = Non- Ex-smokers 432 (79.7)  
1 = Current smokers 110 (20.3)  
Diet (times/year) b    46.8 ± 43.1
Indoor c 0 = not exposed 325 (60.2) 0.63 ± 0.87
1 = low 104 (19.4)
2 = medium 96 (17.9)
3 = high 14 (2.61)
Home 0 = Rural 154 (28.4)  
1 = Urban 388 (71.6)  
Traffic 0 = Scarce / moderate 277 (51.1)  
1 = Intense 265 (48.9)  
Outdoor d 0 = <  4 h/day 443 (81.7)  
1 = ≥4 h/day 99 (18.3)  
GSTM1e 0 = (*0/*0) 296 (55.1)  
1 = *1/*1 and *0/*1 241 (44.9)  
GSTT1 0 = (*0/*0) 97 (18.1)  
1 = *1/*1 and *0/*1 440 (81.9)  
Anti-B[a]PDE-DNA f    1.35 ± 2.87
LTL 0 = below 0.896 271 (49.9) 1.00 ± 0.45
1 = equal /above 0.896 272 (50.1)
LmtDNAcn    1.13 ± 0.31
  1. aSmokers: current cigarette smokers were subjects smoking for at least 1 month before enrolment in the study
  2. bSubjects consuming charcoaled meat or pizza (times/year)
  3. c Sum of several factors: presence of fireplace or coal- or wood-stoves at home; hobbies with introduction of PAHs; exposure to passive smoking
  4. d Exposure to outdoor pollution
  5. e The absence of the specific GSTM1 fragment indicated the corresponding null genotype (*0/*0), and its presence corresponded to the *1/*1 and *0/*l genotypes
  6. f A value of 0.125 adducts/108 nucleotides was assigned to 299 participants (56%) with non-detectable adducts. Samples with ≥0.5 adduct/108 nucleotides were positive