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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Short-term exposure to air pollution and hospital admission for pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID Location Participants Study period Number of cases Male (%) Elderly (%) Data source of outcome Studied pollutants Outcome level Study design Study quality
Chang 2017 [21] Taipei, Taiwan All ages 2012–2015 3729 NA NA Medical records (1 hospital) PM2.5, SO2, NO2 Emergency room visit, ICD-9 Time-series Intermediate
Cheng 2019 [22] Kaohsiung, Taiwan > 17 years 2007–2013 4015 63.5% NA Medical records (1 hospital) PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3 Emergency room visit, ICD-9 Case-crossover Intermediate
Duan 2016 [9] Shijiazhuang, China ≥18 years 2013 2253 53.4% 55%a Medical records (7 hospitals) PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, O3 Hospital admission, diagnosis Case-crossover Intermediate
Franck 2015 [23] Santiago, Chile All ages 2004–2007 44,430 NA NA FONASA and ISAPREs data PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, O3 Hospital admission, ICD-10 Case-crossover Intermediate
Halonen 2009 [24] Helsinki, Finland ≥65 years 1998–2004 10,733 NA 100% Statistics Finland PM2.5 Hospital admission, ICD-10 Time-series Good
Hinwood 2006 [25] Perth, Australia All ages 1992–1998 10,000 (estimated) NA NA Medical records (all hospitals) PM2.5, CO, O3 Unscheduled hospital admission, ICD-9 Case-crossover Good
Kim 2012 [26] Five counties in Denver metropolitan area, CO, USA All ages 2003–2007 23,000 (estimated) NA 44%b Colorado Hospital Association data PM2.5, SO2, NO2 Nonelective hospital admission, ICD-9 Time-series Intermediate
Liu 2016 [27] Greater Huston, TX, USA All ages 2008–2013 1097 49.4% 12.6% Blue Cross Blue Shield Texas claims data PM2.5 Emergency hospital admission, ICD-9 Time-series Intermediate
Malig 2013 [28] CA, USA All ages 2005–2008 70,967 NA NA 2 databases maintained by the California OSHPD PM2.5, PM10 Emergency room visit, ICD-9 Case-crossover Intermediate
Medina-Ramon 2006 [10] 36 cities in USA > 65 years 1986–1999 1,384,813 NA 100% Medicare claims data PM10, O3 Emergency hospital admission, ICD-9 Case-crossover Intermediate
Pennington 2019 [29] Atlanta, GA, USA All ages 1998–2010 162,000 (estimated) NA NA Medical records (41 hospitals) PM2.5 Emergency room visit, ICD-9 Time-series Good
Phosri 2019 [30] Bangkok, Thailand All ages 2006–2014 59,000 (estimated) 43.4%c 15.7%c NHSO claims data PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, O3 Hospital admission, ICD-10 Time-series Good
Pothirat 2019 [31] Chiang Mai, Thailand All ages 2016–2017 325 NA NA Medical records (1 hospital) PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, O3 Hospital admission, ICD-10 Time-series Intermediate
Qiu 2014 [32] Hong Kong All ages 2011–2012 75,863 53.5% 74.5% Hospital Authority Corporate Data Warehouse data PM2.5 Emergency hospital admission, ICD-9 Time-series Good
Rodopoulou 2015 [33] Central AR, USA ≥15 years 2002–2012 2412 40.2%c 7.4%c UAMS Enterprise Data Warehouse data PM2.5, O3 Emergency room visit, ICD-9 Time-series Good
Santus 2012 [34] Milan, Italy All ages 2007–2008 5689 54.9% 48.5% Medical records (5 hospitals) PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, O3 Emergency room visit, ICD-9 Case-crossover Intermediate
Tao 2014 [35] Lanzhou, China All ages 2001–2005 4559 63.1% 18.5% Medical records (4 hospitals) PM10, SO2, NO2 Hospital admission, ICD-10 Time-series Intermediate
Tasci 2018 [36] Ankara, Turkey > 65 years 2011–2015 2606 53.2% 100% Medical records (1 hospital) PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO Emergency room visit, diagnosis Time-series Intermediate
Tian 2019 [37] 184 cities in China ≥18 years 2014–2017 4.2 million NA NA UEBMI claims data PM2.5, PM10 Hospital admission, ICD-10 Time-series Good
Tian 2020 [38] 184 cities in China ≥18 years 2014–2017 4.2 million NA NA UEBMI claims data O3 Hospital admission, ICD-10 Time-series Good
Winquist 2012 [39] St. Louis MSA, USA All ages 2001–2007 98,000 (estimated) NA 35.0% Missouri Hospital Association data (28 hospitals) PM2.5, O3 Emergency room visit, ICD-9 Time-series Good
  1. NA Not available, MSA Metropolitan statistical area, FONASA Fondo Nacional de Salud de Chile, ISAREE Instituciones de Salud Previsional, OSHPD Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, NHSO National Health Security Office, UAMS University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, UEBMI Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance
  2. a ≥ 60 years
  3. bAll hospital admission
  4. cRespiratory admission
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