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Table 2 Pesticides detected on fruits and vegetables

From: Application of the Food Quality Protection Act children’s health safety factor in the U.S. EPA pesticide risk assessments

Pesticide name and type, in alphabetical orderFoods where over 30% of the samples tested between 2016 and 2018 carried detectable pesticide residues [25]EPA document yearThe FQPA factor for acute dietary exposureFQPA factor for chronic dietary exposuresReference
Acetamiprid (neonicotinoid insecticide)Apples, applesauce, cherries, frozen cherries, strawberries, frozen strawberries20171X1X[26]
Ametoctradin (fungicide)Spinach2017not assignedanot assigneda[27]
Azoxystrobin (fungicide)Green onions, kale, raisins20183X1X[28]
Bifenthrin (pyrethroid insecticide)Kale (29.7% of samples tested in 2017), raisins, frozen strawberries20191XN/A[29]
Boscalid (fungicide)Frozen cherries, grapes, raisins, strawberries, frozen strawberries2018N/A1X[30]
Captan (fungicide, detected by the presence of its metabolite tetrahydrophthalimide)Applesauce, strawberries, frozen strawberries20181Xb1X[31]
Chlorantraniliprole (insecticide)Cilantro, spinach2019N/A1X[32]
Chlorpropham (herbicide and plant growth regulator / potato sprout suppressant)Potatoes2017N/A10X[33]
Clothianidin (neonicotinoid insecticide)Spinach20171X1X[34]
Cypermethrin (pyrethroid insecticide)Frozen spinach20191XN/A[29]
Cyprodinil (fungicide)Grapes, strawberries20161X1X[35]
DCPA (herbicide, also called dacthal and chlorthal-dimethyl)Cilantro, kale2011N/A1X[36]
Dimethomorph (fungicide)Spinach201510X1X[37]
Diphenylamine (plant growth regulator)Apples, applesauce2018N/A1X[38]
Fenbuconazole (fungicide)Frozen cherries20191Xb1X[39]
Fenhexamid (fungicide)Cherries, grapes2018N/A1X[40]
Fenpropathrin (pyrethroid insecticide)Canned olives20191XN/A[29]
Flonicamid (insecticide)Spinach, frozen strawberries2019N/A1X[41]
Fludioxonil (fungicide)Apples, cherries, pears, strawberries2017N/A1X[42]
Fluopicolide (fungicide)Kale, spinach2017N/A1X[43]
Fluxapyroxad (fungicide)Strawberries20161X1X[44]
Imazalil (fungicide)Grapefruit, oranges20181Xb1X[45]
Imidacloprid (neonicotinoid insecticide)Cilantro, lettuce, canned tomatoes (29.9% of samples tested in 2017), potatoes, raisins, spinach20171X1X[46]
Iprodione (fungicide)Cherries201210Xc10X[47]
Mandipropamid (fungicide)Spinach, frozen spinach2018N/A1X[48]
Metalaxyl/Mefenoxam (fungicide)Cucumbers (29.8% of samples tested in 2016)20161XN/A[49]
Permethrin, cis and trans (pyrethroid insecticide)Spinach20191XN/A[29]
Propamocarb (fungicide)Cucumbers20191X1X[50]
Pyraclostrobin (fungicide)Frozen cherries, grapes, raisins, strawberries20181X1X[51]
Pyrimethanil (fungicide)Apples, pears20151X1X[52]
Spinetoram (insecticide)Spinach2018N/A1X[53]
Tebuconazole (fungicide)Cherries, frozen cherries, grapes, raisins20183X3X[54]
Thiabendazole (fungicide)Apples, applesauce, grapefruit, mangos, oranges, pears20191X1X[55]
Thiophanate-methyl (fungicide, detected by the presence of its metabolite carbendazim)Applesauce, frozen strawberries20141Xb3X[56]
Trifloxystrobin (fungicide)Frozen cherries, raisins20181Xb1X[57]
  1. N/A not available, indicating that an FQPA factor was not assigned for this exposure scenario
  2. aAccording to the EPA, “based on a review of the available ametoctradin toxicological studies, no toxicological points of departure where selected for ametoctradin and thus, an additional Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) safety factor to protect children is not needed. As a result, no dietary, residential, occupational, or aggregate exposure assessments are required at this time” [27]
  3. bThe EPA did not assign an FQPA factor for the acute dietary exposure scenario for the general population, including infants and children; for acute dietary exposure assessment for females 13–49 years of age, the EPA assigned a 1X FQPA factor
  4. cFor iprodione, the EPA did not assign an FQPA factor for the acute dietary exposure scenario for the general population including infants and children; for acute dietary exposure assessment for females 13–49 years of age, the EPA assigned a 10X FQPA factor