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Table 3 UPDRS3 motor outcomes, overall and by community, Gauteng province, South Africa, 2016–2020

From: Severity of parkinsonism associated with environmental manganese exposure

  All participants
N = 716
Mn smelter community (Meyerton)
N = 621
Reference community
(Ethembalethu)
N = 95
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Total UPDRS3 score ≥ 15a 123 (17.2 %) 120 (19.3 %) 3 (3.2 %)
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
UPDRS3a
 Total score 8.5 (7.1) 9.3 (7.2) 3.7 (4.1)
 Minimum 0 0 0
 Median 7 8 2
 Maximum 52 52 20
Upper limb bradykinesiab 3.7 (3.2) 4.0 (3.2) 1.5 (2.1)
 Minimum 0 0 0
 Median 3.5 4 1
 Maximum 17 17 8
Upper limb rigidityc 1.0 (1.3) 1.1 (1.3) 0.4 (0.7)
 Minimum 0 0 0
 Median 0 0 0
 Maximum 5 5 3
Lower limb bradykinesiac 0.7 (1.1) 0.8 (1.2) 0.3 (0.6)
 Minimum 0 0 0
 Median 0 0 0
 Maximum 6 6 2
Lower limb rigidityc 1.0 (1.4) 1.1 (1.4) 0.3 (0.7)
 Minimum 0 0 0
 Median 0 0 0
 Maximum 6 6.0 2.5
Rest tremord 0.04 (0.3) 0.1 (0.3) 0.0 (0.0)
 Minimum 0 0 0
 Median 0 0 0
 Maximum 3 3 0
Action tremorc 0.1 (0.5) 0.2 (0.5) 0.04 (0.2)
 Minimum 0 0 0
 Median 0 0 0
 Maximum 4 4 2
Axial signse 1.9 (2.4) 2.0 (2.4) 1.2 (1.9)
 Minimum 0 0 0
 Median 1 2 1
 Maximum 24 24 13
  1. Abbreviations: Mn manganese; UPDRS3 Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3
  2. a Poorer motor performance is indicated by greater UPDRS3 scores.
  3. b Sum of six UPDRS3 subscores: Finger-tapping, hand rotations, and rapid arm movements for each limb.
  4. c Sum of the two UPDRS3 subscores (one for each limb).
  5. d Sum of five UPDDRS3 subscores: Upper limbs, lower limbs, and face.
  6. e Sum of eight UPDRS3 subscores: Speech, facial expression, neck rigidity, difficulty arising from a chair, posture, gait, postural instability, and global bradykinesia.