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Table 1 Area-level measures used to identify ethnic enclaves (also described in Williams et al., 2020) [11]

From: Joint effects of ethnic enclave residence and ambient volatile organic compounds exposure on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the United States

Measure Formula Description
API population density
(social attribute)
(AT/PT)  100 Percentage of API residents within an HRR.
Range 0–100; 100 suggests HRR consists of only API residents
Dissimilarity Index
(geographic attribute)
\( \frac{1}{2}\ \sum \limits_{i=1}^n\ \left|\frac{w_i}{W_T}-\frac{a_i}{A_T}\right| \) Differential distribution of API and White populations within an HRR.
Range 0–1; score of 1 suggests absolute geographic separation of API and White populations within HRR.
Isolation Index
(geographic attribute)
\( \sum \limits_{i=1}^n\ \left(\frac{a_i}{A_T}\right)\ast \left(\frac{a_i}{P_T}\right) \) Probability that API residents of an HRR will interaction with another API individual.
Range 0–1; score of 1 suggests an API resident in an HRR will only interact with other API residents.
Components Description
ai Number of API in the Zip code
AT Number of API in the HRR
n Number of Zip codes
PT Total population of the HRR
wi Number of white in the Zip code
WT Number of white in the HRR