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Table 2 Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between CVD, stroke and CHD mortality and annual area-weighted average Ldn aircraft noise, between 2011 and 2016 around the Congonhas Airport in São Paulo, Brazil

From: Risk of cardiovascular mortality, stroke and coronary heart mortality associated with aircraft noise around Congonhas airport, São Paulo, Brazil: a small-area study

  CVD Stroke CHD
Noise levels RR 95% CI p-trend RR 95% CI p-trend RR 95% CI p-trend
Basic Model *
  ≤ 50 dB 1    0.939 1    0.096 1    0.304
  > 50–55 dB 0.96 0.90 1.03   0.99 0.9 1.1   0.95 0.87 1.03  
  > 55–60 dB 1.06 0.96 1.17   0.94 0.81 1.08   1.05 0.94 1.18  
  > 60–65 dB 0.97 0.87 1.10   0.84 0.7 0.99   0.99 0.87 1.14  
  > 65 dB 1.00 0.87 1.14   0.86 0.71 1.03   1.06 0.91 1.23  
Adjusted Model **
  ≤ 50 dB 1    0.043 1    0.253 1    0.005
  > 50–55 dB 0.98 0.92 1.05   1.05 0.95 1.16   0.98 0.91 1.07  
  > 55–60 dB 1.01 0.93 1.11   0.91 0.79 1.04   1.03 0.92 1.15  
  > 60–65 dB 1.06 0.95 1.18   0.93 0.79 1.1   1.08 0.94 1.23  
  > 65 dB 1.06 0.94 1.2   0.92 0.77 1.1   1.11 0.96 1.27  
Sensitivity Analysis 1 (excl. Road traffic) ***
  ≤ 50 dB 1    0.087 1    0.21 1    0.02
  > 50–55 dB 1.00 0.94 1.07   1.07 0.97 1.18   1.00 0.92 1.09  
  > 55–60 dB 1.05 0.96 1.15   0.94 0.82 1.07   1.07 0.96 1.19  
  > 60–65 dB 1.09 0.97 1.22   0.96 0.81 1.13   1.1 0.97 1.26  
  > 65 dB 1.08 0.96 1.22   0.93 0.78 1.11   1.13 0.98 1.31  
Sensitivity Analysis 2 (incl. Modified MHDI 2010) ****
  ≤ 50 dB 1    0.029 1    0.263 1    0.002
  > 50–55 dB 0.98 0.91 1.04   1.04 0.95 1.15   0.97 0.9 1.06  
  > 55–60 dB 1.01 0.92 1.1   0.9 0.79 1.03   1.02 0.91 1.14  
  > 60–65 dB 1.05 0.94 1.17   0.92 0.78 1.09   1.06 0.93 1.21  
  > 65 dB 1.05 0.93 1.19   0.91 0.76 1.09   1.10 0.95 1.27  
  1. *Basic Model: adjusted for age and sex (direct standardization); ** Adjusted Model: Basic model + smoking proxy + standard MHDI 2010 + Black and Mixed ethnicity + Road traffic density; *** Sensitivity Analysis 1: Adjusted model excluding road traffic density, and ****Sensitivity Analysis 2: Adjusted model with the modified MHDI 2010 (i.e. excl. Life expectancy). Other models are described in Table S1, Additional File 2. Bolded, the statistically significant p-trend values (i.e. < 0.05)
  2. Note: CVD Cardiovascular Diseases; CHD Coronary Heart Diseases; RR relative Risk; CI Confidence Intervals