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Table 4 Maternal trimester-specific bisphenol concentrations (categorized as detected and undetected) and fetal growth measures

From: Maternal bisphenol urine concentrations, fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes: A population-based prospective cohort

  Fetal head circumference Difference in SDS (95% Confidence Interval) Fetal length Difference in SDS (95% Confidence Interval) Fetal weight Difference in SDS (95% Confidence Interval)
Second trimester Third trimester Birth Second trimester Third trimester Birth Second trimester Third trimester Birth
Bisphenol A
 First trimester − 0.04 (− 0.16, 0.08) − 0.06 (− 0.18, 0.06) 0.02 (− 0.19, 0.22) 0.11 (− 0.01, 0.23) 0.05 (− 0.07, 0.17) 0.02 (− 0.16, 0.20) 0.04 (− 0.07, 0.15) −0.02 (− 0.14, 0.10) 0.02 (− 0.10, 0.15)
 Second trimester −0.01 (− 0.21, 0.18) −0.03 (− 0.22, 0.16) −0.04 (− 0.36, 0.28) 0.03 (− 0.16, 0.22) −0.01 (− 0.20, 0.18) −0.13 (− 0.41, 0.15) −0.05 (− 0.23, 0.13) −0.04 (− 0.23, 0.15) 0.05 (− 0.15, 0.24)
 Third trimester   − 0.08 (− 0.24, 0.08) −0.04 (− 0.31, 0.22)   0.01 (− 0.15, 0.17) 0.19 (− 0.05, 0.43)   0.03 (− 0.13, 0.19) 0.01 (− 0.16, 0.17)
Bisphenol S
 First trimester 0.15 (0.05, 0.26)† 0.12 (0.02, 0.23)† 0.11 (−0.06, 0.29) 0.10 (−0.01, 0.20) 0.09 (− 0.02, 0.19) 0.08 (− 0.07, 0.23) 0.12 (0.02, 0.22)† 0.16 (0.06, 0.26)† 0.10 (− 0.00, 0.21)
 Second trimester 0.09 (−0.02, 0.20) 0.06 (− 0.05, 0.16) 0.03 (− 0.15, 0.21) 0.02 (− 0.08, 0.12) 0.02 (− 0.09, 0.13) 0.11 (− 0.05, 0.26) −0.04 (− 0.14, 0.06) 0.01 (− 0.10, 0.11) 0.08 (− 0.02, 0.19)
 Third trimester   NA NA   NA NA   NA NA
Bisphenol F
 First trimester 0.02 (−0.08, 0.12) 0.06 (−0.04, 0.16) − 0.06 (− 0.23, 0.11) 0.03 (− 0.07, 0.12) 0.08 (− 0.02, 0.18) 0.04 (− 0.11, 0.18) 0.07 (− 0.03, 0.16) 0.10 (0.00, 0.20)* 0.10 (0.00, 0.20)*
 Second trimester NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
 Third trimester   0.02 (−0.09, 0.13) −0.05 (− 0.32, 0.13)   0.03 (− 0.08, 0.14) 0.16 (0.00, 0.31)*   0.07 (− 0.04, 0.17) 0.08 (− 0.02, 0.19)
  1. Values are regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) that reflect the differences in fetal head circumference, length and weight in SDS in the second and third trimester and at birth for detected bisphenol concentrations, as compared to the reference group (undetected concentrations). Models include fetal sex (except in the models for the outcomes at birth), maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, educational level, ethnicity, parity, smoking habits and alcohol consumption during each trimester, daily caloric intake and folic acid supplement use. *p-value< 0.05; †p-value< 0.020
  2. NA not applicable due to > 80% of concentrations below the limit of detection, SDS standard deviation scores