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Table 1 Characteristics of TGCT cases and controls (group A and group B), N = 578, case-control study, France, 2015–2018

From: Domestic use of pesticides during early periods of development and risk of testicular germ cell tumors in adulthood: a French nationwide case-control study

  TGCT cases (N = 304) Group A controls (N = 145) Group B controls (N = 129)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Prenatal Characteristics
Maternal use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy
  No 296 (97.4) 142 (97.9) 129 (100.0)
  Yes 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Missing 7 (2.3) 3 (2.1) 0 (0.0)
Maternal smoking during pregnancy
  No 252 (82.9) 122 (84.1) 110 (85.3)
  Yes 52 (17.1) 23 (15.9) 19 (14.7)
Maternal age (years), mean ± SD 27.6 ± 4.7 27.0 ± 4.7 27.8 ± 4.6
Paternal age (years), mean ± SD 29.8 ± 4.8 29.5 ± 5.3 30.2 ± 5.4
  Missing 169 (55.6) 80 (55.2) 62 (48.1)
Perinatal Characteristics
Inguinal hernia
  No 263 (86.5) 128 (88.3) 117 (90.7)
  Yes 23 (7.6) 8 (5.5) 7 (5.4)
  Missing 18 (5.9) 9 (6.2) 5 (3.9)
Birth weight
  < 2500 g 19 (6.3) 8 (5.5) 6 (4.7)
  [2500–4000[g 250 (82.2) 122 (84.1) 106 (82.2)
  > =4000 g 30 (9.9) 15 (10.3) 16 (12.4)
  Missing 5 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8)
Gestational age
  < =36 weeks 27 (8.9) 10 (6.9) 8 (6.2)
  > 36 weeks 270 (88.8) 134 (92.4) 120 (93.0)
  Missing 7 (2.3) 1 (0.7) 1 (0.8)
Birth order
  First 123 (40.5) 61 (42.1) 62 (48.1)
  Second 101 (33.2) 49 (33.8) 41 (31.8)
  Third 49 (16.1) 23 (15.9) 15 (11.6)
  Fourth and more 31 (10.2) 12 (8.3) 11 (8.5)
Sibship size
  1 21 (6.9) 23 (15.9) 14 (10.9)
  2 148 (48.7) 48 (33.1) 55 (42.6)
  3 96 (31.6) 48 (33.1) 40 (31.0)
   > =4 39 (12.8) 26 (17.9) 20 (15.5)
Birth from multiple pregnancy
  No 276 (90.8) 134 (92.4) 122 (94.6)
  Yes 10 (3.3) 2 (1.4) 3 (2.3)
  Missing 18 (5.9) 9 (6.2) 4 (3.1)
Birth cohort
  1970–1980 89 (29.3) 47 (32.4) 34 (26.4)
  1981–1990 162 (53.3) 88 (60.7) 88 (68.2)
  1991–2000 53 (17.4) 10 (6.9) 7 (5.4)
Predisposing Characteristics
Geographic origin
  French by birth 284 (93.4) 136 (93.8) 123 (95.3)
  French by acquisition 2 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.6)
  Missing 18 (5.9) 9 (6.2) 4 (3.1)
Family history of TGCT
  No 260 (85.5) 131 (90.3) 119 (92.2)
  Yes 25 (8.2) 5 (3.4) 6 (4.7)
  Missing 19 (6.3) 9 (6.2) 4 (3.1)
Family history of cryptorchidism
  No 264 (86.8) 131 (90.3) 122 (94.6)
  Yes 19 (6.3) 4 (2.8) 3 (2.3)
  Missing 21 (6.9) 10 (6.9) 4 (3.1)
Parental Socio-Economic Status
Maternal job at birth (ISCO-1968 codes)
  Not working at time of birth 111 (36.5) 61 (42.1) 48 (37.2)
  Professional, Technical and Related Workers (0/1) 57 (18.8) 28 (19.3) 34 (26.4)
  Administrative and Managerial Workers (2) 9 (3.0) 0 (0.0) 5 (3.9)
  Clerical and Related Workers (3) 61 (20.1) 26 (17.9) 23 (17.8)
  Sales Workers (4) 14 (4.6) 1 (0.7) 5 (3.9)
  Service Workers (5) 27 (8.9) 14 (9.7) 10 (7.8)
  Agricultural, Animal Husbandry and Forestry Workers, Fishermen and Hunters (6) 8 (2.6) 4 (2.8) 1 (0.8)
  Production and Related Workers, Transport Equipment Operators and Labourers (7/8/9) 17 (5.6) 11 (7.6) 3 (2.3)
Maternal job at birth’s industry (NAF-1999 codes)
  Not working at time of birth 111 (36.5) 61 (42.1) 48 (37.2)
  Agriculture,hunting and forestry (A) 11 (3.6) 4 (2.8) 1 (0.8)
  Mining and quarrying (C) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0)
  Manufacturing (D) 27 (8.9) 15 (10.3) 10 (7.8)
  Electricity,gas and water supply (E) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0)
  Construction (F) 2 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8)
  Wholesale and retail trade;repair of motor vehicles,motorcycles and personal and household goods (G) 16 (5.3) 4 (2.8) 10 (7.8)
  Hotels and restaurants (H) 3 (1.0) 3 (2.1) 1 (0.8)
  Transport,storage and communication (I) 10 (3.3) 3 (2.1) 6 (4.7)
  Financial intermediation (J) 12 (3.9) 4 (2.8) 6 (4.7)
  Real estate,renting and business activities (K) 12 (3.9) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.9)
  Public administration and defence;compulsory social security (L) 14 (4.6) 12 (8.3) 4 (3.1)
  Education (M) 30 (9.9) 11 (7.6) 14 (10.9)
  Health and social work (N) 46 (15.1) 20 (13.8) 21 (16.3)
  Other community,social and personal service acitivities (O) 10 (3.3) 1 (0.7) 2 (1.6)
  Private houeholds with employed persons (P) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.1) 0 (0.0)
Paternal job at birth (ISCO-1968 codes)
  Not working at time of birth 42 (13.8) 20 (13.8) 11 (8.5)
  Professional, Technical and Related Workers (0/1) 65 (21.4) 39 (26.9) 51 (39.5)
  Administrative and Managerial Workers (2) 24 (7.9) 4 (2.8) 12 (9.3)
  Clerical and Related Workers (3) 24 (7.9) 14 (9.7) 12 (9.3)
  Sales Workers (4) 13 (4.3) 6 (4.1) 8 (6.2)
  Service Workers (5) 24 (7.9) 5 (3.4) 6 (4.7)
  Agricultural, Animal Husbandry and Forestry Workers, Fishermen and Hunters (6) 21 (6.9) 11 (7.6) 2 (1.6)
  Production and Related Workers, Transport Equipment Operators and Labourers (7/8/9) 89 (29.3) 46 (31.7) 27 (20.9)
  Military 2 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Paternal job at birth’s industry (NAF-1999 codes)
  Not working at time of birth 42 (13.8) 20 (13.8) 11 (8.5)
  Agriculture,hunting and forestry (A) 25 (8.2) 11 (7.6) 3 (2.3)
  Manufacturing (D) 55 (18.1) 30 (20.7) 25 (19.4)
  Electricity,gas and water supply (E) 3 (1.0) 1 (0.7) 3 (2.3)
  Construction (F) 28 (9.2) 12 (8.3) 10 (7.8)
  Wholesale and retail trade;repair of motor vehicles,motorcycles and personal and household goods (G) 21 (6.9) 10 (6.9) 12 (9.3)
  Hotels and restaurants (H) 7 (2.3) 3 (2.1) 2 (1.6)
  Transport,storage and communication (I) 28 (9.2) 15 (10.3) 12 (9.3)
  Financial intermediation (J) 12 (3.9) 3 (2.1) 5 (3.9)
  Real estate,renting and business activities (K) 21 (6.9) 10 (6.9) 11 (8.5)
  Public administration and defence;compulsory social security (L) 30 (9.9) 12 (8.3) 9 (7.0)
  Education (M) 16 (5.3) 12 (8.3) 12 (9.3)
  Health and social work (N) 13 (4.3) 4 (2.8) 9 (7.0)
  Other community,social and personal service acitivities (O) 3 (1.0) 2 (1.4) 4 (3.1)
  Extra-territorial organizations and bodies (Q) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8)
Maternal education
  Baccalaureate’s degree or less 192 (63.2) 83 (57.2) 59 (45.7)
  Graduate studies 84 (27.6) 35 (24.1) 52 (40.3)
  Other 28 (9.2) 26 (17.9) 18 (14.0)
  Missing 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0)
Parental incomes at birth
  0 to less than 5000€ 63 (20.7) 42 (29.0) 35 (27.1)
  5000 to less than 10,000€ 55 (18.1) 22 (15.2) 18 (14.0)
  10,000 to less than 20,000€ 41 (13.5) 22 (15.2) 16 (12.4)
  20,000 to less than 30,000€ 21 (6.9) 5 (3.4) 13 (10.1)
  30,000€ and more 24 (7.9) 5 (3.4) 5 (3.9)
  Missing 100 (32.9) 49 (33.8) 42 (32.6)
Residential Characteristics
Urban status of the place of birth,commune level
  No 73 (24.0) 36 (24.8) 27 (20.9)
  Yes 231 (76.0) 109 (75.2) 102 (79.1)
Presence of crops in 500 m buffer around place of birth
  No 76 (25.0) 39 (26.9) 38 (29.5)
  Yes 223 (73.4) 104 (71.7) 90 (69.8)
  Missing 5 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.8)
Possession of a garden
  No 153 (50.3) 76 (52.4) 64 (49.6)
  Yes 151 (49.7) 69 (47.6) 65 (50.4)
Possession of a vegetable garden
  No 223 (73.4) 97 (66.9) 88 (68.2)
  Yes 81 (26.6) 48 (33.1) 41 (31.8)
Possession of an orchard
  No 261 (85.9) 127 (87.6) 110 (85.3)
  Yes 43 (14.1) 18 (12.4) 19 (14.7)
Gardening activities during the spring/summer seasons
  No 230 (75.7) 102 (70.3) 92 (71.3)
  Yes 74 (24.3) 42 (29.0) 37 (28.7)
  Missing 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0)
Possession of pets
  No 69 (22.7) 32 (22.1) 29 (22.5)
  Yes 235 (77.3) 113 (77.9) 100 (77.5)
Possession of indoor plants
  No 178 (58.6) 81 (55.9) 78 (60.5)
  Yes 126 (41.4) 64 (44.1) 51 (39.5)