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Table 2 Measures of the association between secondhand smoke and high risk obstructive sleep apnea in the 26 included studies

From: What is the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) and possible obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis

First author (year/ journal), country Sex Comparison Pooled RR 95% CI (low) 95% CI (high) Source
Anuntaseree (2001), Thailand Boys and girls Habitual snoring vs. never snoring 1.35 0.95 1.91 Table 2 calculation
Brunetti (2011), Italy Boys and girls AHI > 3 1.65 0.53 5.18 Table 3 calculation
Castronovo (2002), Australia Boys and girls Habitual snoring vs. never snoring 1.09 0.84 1.41 Table 1 calculation
Corbo (1989), Italy Boys and girls Habitual snoring vs. non snoring 1.72 1.51 1.96 Table IV calculation
Corbo (2001), Italy Boys and girls Habitual snoring vs. non snoring 1.55 1.06 2.27 Table 2 calculation
Ersu (2004), Turkey Boys and girls High risk OSA: Brouillette’s questionnaire OSA scores > 3.5 1.55 1.13 2.13 Table 3 calculation
Franklin (2004), Sweden Men and women combined Habitual snoring: loud and disturbing snoring at least 3 nights a week 1.49 1.30 1.70 Table 1 and Results 2nd paragraph calculation
Gill (2012), New Zealand Boys and girls Habitual snoring: often (4–6 night/week) or always (every night/day) 1.60 0.89 2.87 Table 3 calculation
Gozal (2008), USA Boys and girls Habitual snoring: almost always (> 4 nights/week) or always on snoring frequency and medium loud to loud on loudness of snoring 1.34 1.22 1.47 Table 1 calculation
Huang (2019), China Men and women combined AHI5 1.35 1.13 1.62 Table 3 calculation
Kaditis (2004), Greece Boys and girls Habitual snoring: snoring every night 1.89 1.35 2.64 Table 5 calculation
Kannan (2017), USA Boys and girls Habitual snoring 3 nights/week 2.00 1.48 2.70 Table 2 calculation
Kheirandish-Gozal (2014), Iran Boys and girls Habitual snoring 3 nights/week 2.25 1.41 3.59 Table 4 calculation
Kuehni (2008), UK Boys and girls Habitual snoring: snoring almost always 1.67 1.43 1.95 Table 1 calculation
Li AM (2010), Hong Kong Boys and girls Habitual snoring: frequently, three nights or more per week 0.93 0.77 1.12 Table 3 calculation
Li S (2010), China Boys and girls Habitual snoring: frequently (2–4 nights/week) or always (5–7 nights/week) 1.16 1.06 1.26 Table 1 calculation
Nosetti (2011), Italy Boys and girls AHI (NR) 2.31 2.04 2.61 Abstract calculation
Ohida (2007), Japan Women Snoring (often or always) 1.26 1.05 1.51 Table 2 calculation
Owen (1996), UK Boys and girls Snoring (sometimes or often) 1.83 1.20 2.79 Table 3 calculation
Sahin (2009), Turkey Boys and girls Habitual snoring: frequently or almost every day 1.79 0.96 3.34 Table 1 calculation
Sogut (2005), Turkey Boys and girls AHI > 3 2.19 0.70 6.85 Table 4 calculation
Sogut (2009), Turkey Boys and girls Habitual snoring: often and always 1.56 0.85 2.87 Table 3 calculation
Urschitz (2004), Germany Boys and girls Habitual snoring: frequently and always 1.29 0.91 1.83 Table 2 calculation
Włodarska (2020), Poland Boys and girls OSA: children aged < 13 years, AHI > 1.5; children aged > 13, AHI > 5 4.41 1.34 14.48 Table 1 calculation
Zhang (2004), Australia Boys and girls Habitual snoring more than 4 times/week 1.50 1.13 2.00 Table 2 and Table 3 calculation
Zhu (2013), Hong Kong Boys and girls Habitual snoring 3 nights/week 1.34 0.95 1.89 Table 1 calculation
  1. RR Risk ratio, CI Confidence interval, AHI Apnea–Hypopnea Index, PSG Polysomnography, NR Not reported