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Table 1 Characteristics of four European panels of asthmatic/COPD patients

From: Particulate matter air pollution and respiratory symptoms in individuals having either asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a European multicentre panel study

  Helsinki Athens Amsterdam Birmingham
  n = 36a n = 35a n = 36a n = 29a
Male /Female 6 / 30 19 / 16 10 / 26 7 / 22
 Asthma 3 / 28 6 / 13 3 / 8 6 / 21
 COPD 3 / 1 12 / 3 2 / 7 1 / 0
 Otherb 0 / 1 1 / 0 5 / 11 0 / 1
Agec 63.5 [36–85] 62.2 [33–84] 63.3 [46–77] 60.1 [37–76]
 Asthma 62.9 [36–85] 55.7 [33–77] 62.8 [46–77] 59.6 [37–76]
 COPD 65.0 [57–74] 68.7 [45–84] 63.7 [59–72] 53.0 -
 Otherb 75.0 - 78.0 - 63.2 [46–77] 69.0 -
Asthma 31 (86%) 19 (54%) 11 (31%) 27 (93%)
COPD 4 (11%) 15 (43%) 9 (25%) 1 (3.5%)
Asthma + COPD 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 4 (11%) 1 (3.5%)
CNSLDd 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 12 (33%) 0 (0%)
Smoking status
Never smoker 26 (72%) 15 (43%) 13 (36%) 15 (52%)
Current 0 (0%) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 3 (10%)
Ex-smoker 10 (28%) 19 (54%) 23 (64%) 11 (48%)
ETSe exposure at home 0 (0%) 5 (14.7%) 0 (0%) 1 (3.4%)
Medication use
Short acting β2-agonist 24 (67%) 9 (26%) 16 (44%) 28 (97%)
Reliever medicationf 29 (81%) 21 (62%) 25 (69%) 29 (100%)
Inhaled glucocorticosteroids 34 (94%) 28 (82%) 27 (75%) 24 (83%)
Oral glucocorticosteroids 5 (14%) 5 (15%) 6 (17%) 6 (21%)
On need medication use
Short acting β2-agonist 18 (50%) 8 (24%) 14 (39%) 28 (97%)
Reliever medicationf 22 (61%) 21 (62%) 18 (50%) 29 (100%)
Inhaled glucocorticosteroids 6 (17%) 18 (53%) 7 (19%) 5 (17%)
Oral glucocorticosteroids 3 (8%) 5 (15%) 4 (11%) 5 (17%)
  1. a Total participants in panel.
  2. b Asthma + COPD or chronic non-specific lung disease.
  3. c Given as mean and [range].
  4. d Chronic non-specific lung disease.
  5. e Environmental tobacco smoke.
  6. f Includes short acting β2-agonist, long acting β2-agonist, anticholinergic drugs and combination of an anticholinergic drug and a β2-agonist.