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Table 5 Associations of particulate matter indices, NO 2 and O 3 with limitation in activities due to breathing problems in all participants and the subgroup of asthmatics (random effects pooled estimates)

From: Particulate matter air pollution and respiratory symptoms in individuals having either asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a European multicentre panel study

Symptom Pollutant Lag0 Lag1 Lag2 Lag06
   OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Vigorous activities          
  PM10         
 Total   1.018 0.950-1.092 1.028 0.957-1.103 1.026 0.956-1.102 0.989 0.854-1.146
 Asthmatics   0.987 0.869-1.121 1.006 0.873-1.158 1.010 0.873-1.168 0.924 0.726-1.177
  PM2.5         
 Total   1.016 0.910-1.135 1.016 0.892-1.158 1.039 0.922-1.169 1.005 0.831-1.216
 Asthmatics   0.992 0.856-1.150 0.995 0.843-1.174 1.019 0.858-1.211 0.944 0.743-1.198
  PM10 - 2.5         
 Total   1.093 0.933-1.281 1.114 0.949-1.308 1.049 0.948-1.160 1.230 0.851-1.779
 Asthmatics   0.980 0.817-1.175 1.005 0.816-1.238 1.019 0.919-1.130 0.956 0.612-1.494
  PNC         
 Total   1.001 0.888-1.129 1.018 0.916-1.133 1.054 0.985-1.129 0.906 0.778-1.054
 Asthmatics   0.979 0.895-1.070 1.014 0.924-1.112 1.065 0.976-1.163 0.927 0.748-1.149
  Absorbance         
 Total   0.999 0.894-1.117 1.021 0.917-1.137 1.010 0.885-1.152 0.994 0.691-1.432
 Asthmatics   1.031 0.924-1.151 1.063 0.938-1.206 1.069 0.919-1.243 0.984 0.643-1.507
  NO2         
 Total   0.988 0.940-1.038 1.010 0.971-1.051 1.037 0.979-1.097 1.007 0.844-1.202
 Asthmatics   0.995 0.916-1.081 1.028 0.960-1.100 1.046 0.945-1.158 0.942 0.713-1.245
  O3         
 Total   1.033 0.935-1.141 1.031 0.946-1.124 1.024 0.932-1.125 1.107 0.879-1.394
 Asthmatics   0.980 0.887-1.083 0.988 0.927-1.053 0.979 0.922-1.040 0.981 0.850-1.133
Moderate activities          
  PM10         
 Total   0.973 0.888-1.067 0.973 0.923-1.026 0.973 0.907-1.044 0.904 0.729-1.122
 Asthmatics   0.946 0.818-1.094 0.958 0.857-1.071 0.979 0.897-1.069 0.859 0.680-1.086
  PM2.5         
 Total   0.922 0.749-1.136 0.950 0.848-1.065 0.963 0.862-1.077 0.953 0.808-1.124
 Asthmatics   0.896 0.712-1.126 0.979 0.839-1.142 0.965 0.846-1.102 0.938 0.762-1.154
  PM10 - 2.5         
 Total   1.068 0.913-1.249 1.023 0.932-1.122 1.014 0.966-1.064 0.912 0.667-1.248
 Asthmatics   1.000 0.943-1.062 0.987 0.932-1.045 1.007 0.955-1.062 0.727 0.411-1.289
  PNC         
 Total   1.077 0.937-1.239 1.034 0.899-1.189 1.010 0.927-1.100 0.935 0.762-1.146
 Asthmatics   1.075 0.977-1.183 1.025 0.922-1.139 1.016 0.873-1.184 0.835 0.680-1.025
  Absorbance         
 Total   0.973 0.891-1.062 0.973 0.869-1.088 0.974 0.851-1.116 1.036 0.740-1.451
 Asthmatics   0.994 0.871-1.135 0.993 0.854-1.155 0.984 0.814-1.190 0.985 0.618-1.570
  NO2         
 Total   1.004 0.917-1.100 0.991 0.915-1.074 1.007 0.932-1.088 1.064 0.873-1.296
 Asthmatics   1.004 0.897-1.123 0.988 0.886-1.100 1.000 0.889-1.125 0.999 0.718-1.390
  O3         
 Total   0.970 0.899-1.046 1.000 0.916-1.091 1.002 0.939-1.070 1.022 0.879-1.189
 Asthmatics   0.940 0.874-1.012 0.979 0.901-1.064 0.979 0.921-1.041 1.007 0.812-1.250
Walking          
  PM10         
 Total   1.010 0.924-1.104 1.039 1.007-1.073 1.012 0.976-1.049 1.074 0.966-1.194
 Asthmatics   1.009 0.921-1.105 1.055 1.018-1.094 1.023 0.987-1.061 1.009 0.823-1.237
  PM2.5         
 Total   1.000 0.917-1.091 1.019 0.953-1.088 0.963 0.850-1.090 0.839 0.574-1.225
 Asthmatics   1.008 0.882-1.152 1.097 1.032-1.167 1.078 1.013-1.147 0.934 0.663-1.316
  PM10 - 2.5         
 Total   1.072 0.904-1.273 1.076 1.026-1.128 1.044 0.997-1.092 1.079 0.819-1.420
 Asthmatics   1.012 0.884-1.159 1.060 1.005-1.119 1.013 0.959-1.069 0.911 0.554-1.499
  PNC         
 Total   0.978 0.797-1.199 0.986 0.915-1.063 1.007 0.937-1.083 0.975 0.670-1.418
 Asthmatics   0.906 0.798-1.029 1.010 0.921-1.106 1.013 0.928-1.106 0.804 0.658-0.981
  Absorbance         
 Total   1.014 0.915-1.124 1.038 0.956-1.128 1.013 0.942-1.089 0.852 0.544-1.333
 Asthmatics   1.036 0.939-1.143 1.100 1.031-1.174 1.078 0.965-1.204 0.942 0.610-1.456
  NO2         
 Total   0.979 0.940-1.019 1.011 0.959-1.065 1.034 0.993-1.077 1.075 0.931-1.241
 Asthmatics   0.988 0.924-1.057 1.048 0.967-1.136 1.076 0.968-1.196 1.093 0.886-1.349
  O3         
 Total   1.012 0.975-1.050 1.004 0.961-1.048 1.020 0.983-1.059 1.038 0.971-1.109
 Asthmatics   0.999 0.948-1.053 0.982 0.933-1.033 1.003 0.939-1.071 1.048 0.913-1.203
  1. Bold are significant pooled effects.