- Open Access
Nanoparticles in the environment: assessment using the causal diagram approach
- Suchi Smita†1,
- Shailendra K Gupta†2,
- Alena Bartonova3,
- Maria Dusinska3, 4,
- Arno C Gutleb5 and
- Qamar Rahman†1Email author
© Smita et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Published: 28 June 2012
Nanoparticles (NPs) cause concern for health and safety as their impact on the environment and humans is not known. Relatively few studies have investigated the toxicological and environmental effects of exposure to naturally occurring NPs (NNPs) and man-made or engineered NPs (ENPs) that are known to have a wide variety of effects once taken up into an organism.
A review of recent knowledge (between 2000-2010) on NP sources, and their behaviour, exposure and effects on the environment and humans was performed. An integrated approach was used to comprise available scientific information within an interdisciplinary logical framework, to identify knowledge gaps and to describe environment and health linkages for NNPs and ENPs.
The causal diagram has been developed as a method to handle the complexity of issues on NP safety, from their exposure to the effects on the environment and health. It gives an overview of available scientific information starting with common sources of NPs and their interactions with various environmental processes that may pose threats to both human health and the environment. Effects of NNPs on dust cloud formation and decrease in sunlight intensity were found to be important environmental changes with direct and indirect implication in various human health problems. NNPs and ENPs exposure and their accumulation in biological matrices such as microbiota, plants and humans may result in various adverse effects. The impact of some NPs on human health by ROS generation was found to be one of the major causes to develop various diseases.
A proposed cause-effects diagram for NPs is designed considering both NNPs and ENPs. It represents a valuable information package and user-friendly tool for various stakeholders including students, researchers and policy makers, to better understand and communicate on issues related to NPs.
- Causal Diagram
- Expert Elicitation
- Noctilucent Cloud
- Himalayan Glacier
- Atmospheric Brown Cloud
Within HENVINET, an FP6 funded project, causal diagrams were developed as a tool to evaluate areas of agreement and disagreement between scientists and to identify gaps of knowledge [1, 2]. The method of expert elicitation was applied by the HENVINET consortium to assess the health and policy implications of phthalates, where all details in the methodology behind the results presented here of the decaBDE and HBCD elicitations can be found . In addition, an extensive review of the methodology with an overall discussion and analysis of the outcome for all the priority areas of the HENVINET consortium has been made . Furthermore evaluations on advantages and disadvantages of the expert elicitation methodology have been made by others [4, 5]. This approach has been chosen as one potential method to handle complex issues that are typically faced by the environment and health community and decision-makers. The current manuscript describes a proposed cause-effect diagram for nanoparticles (NPs) applicable to both naturally occurring NPs (NNPs) and man-made or engineered NPs (ENPs), and provides a short justification for the inclusion of the proposed elements into the presented cause-effect diagram. However, it has to be noted that the presented cause-effect diagram has not been the topic of an expert- elicitation yet.
At the moment, it is unclear whether the benefits of nanotechnologies outweigh the risks associated with environmental release and exposure to NPs and there are concerns that NPs can also lead to a new class of environmental hazards . Until now, relatively few studies have investigated the toxicological and environmental effects of exposure to NPs and ENPs. However, there is enormous effort at national and at international levels including the OECD and the European Union to investigate the impact of NPs on the environment and health. No clear guidelines exist on how to evaluate and quantify these effects, the provision of systematic information following NPs from releases to effects was requested  and furthermore it was argued to apply an integrated approach . NPs differ in size, shape, chemical composition and in many physico-chemical properties. It is therefore crucially important to know which properties may cause adverse health effects .
Sources of nanoparticles
Sources of NPs can be classified as natural or intentional and unintentional anthropogenic activities. NNPs exist in the environment since the beginning of Earth’s history and are common and widely distributed throughout the earths´ atmosphere, oceans, surface and ground water, soil and even in living organisms. Major natural processes that release NPs in the atmosphere are forest fires, volcanic activities, weathering, formation from clay minerals, soil erosion by wind and water, or dust storms from desert. Atmospheric dust alone is estimated to contain as much as several million of tons of natural NPs within a year . Naturally occurring ambient NPs are quite heterogeneous in size and can be transported over thousands of kilometres and remain suspended in the air for several days.
As a growing and widely applied science, nanotechnology has a global socioeconomic value, with applications ranging from electronics to biomedical uses . With the advancement of industrial processes and nanotechnologies, a large number of ENPs are been manufactured and it is inevitable that during the use of the related products, ENPs are released in the air, water and soil both intentionally and unintentionally.
Because of their small size (less than 100 nm) and the very high surface to volume ratio, NPs usually display an enormously elevated reactivity potential. NPs can be assigned to a transitional range between single atoms or molecules and bulk material. The physicochemical features of NPs differ substantially from those of their respective bulk materials. Most of the ENPs are made up of carbon, silicon, metal or metal oxides and are believed to adversely affect the environment and human health directly or indirectly together with naturally occurring NPs . Certain carbon nanotubes can cause the onset of mesothelioma, a type of cancer previously thought to be only associated with asbestos exposure, once inhaled [4, 5, 21]. However, this is not caused by the fact that nanotubes have two dimensions smaller than 100 nm but because they in fact interact with cells similarly to asbestos .
Natural occurrence of NPs in environmental matrices and their effects
NNPs can serve as a model for ENPs in the environment and naturally occurring mineral NPs. Their behaviour can point out important mechanisms in which NPs can move through environments and affect various environmental systems . Once NPs are released in the environment from either natural or man-made sources, very little is known about their environmental fate. Especially NNPs in the atmosphere have been studied in atmospheric sciences . After release in the environment, NPs will accumulate in various environmental matrices such as air , water, soil and sediments including wastewater sludge [24–28].
Effects of NPs on the environment
Various environmental processes that depend on the presence of physical entities are likely to be altered by the accumulation of NPs in the environment. Some of these processes are dust cloud formation, environmental hydroxyl radical concentration, ozone depletion, or stratospheric temperature change.
Effect of NNPs on dust cloud formation and decrease in sun light intensity
NNPs are thought to play an important role in dust-clouds formation after being released into the environment as they coagulate and form dust cloud . 70% of the brown clouds over South Asia are made up of soot from the burning of biomass; largely wood and animal dung used for cooking and mainly contains particulate matters and carbon NPs from unprocessed fuel . The regional haze, known as atmospheric brown clouds, contributes to glacial melting, reduces sunlight, and helps create extreme weather conditions that impact agricultural production. The pollution clouds also reduced the monsoon season in India [31, 32]. The weather extremes may also contribute to the reduced production of key crops such as rice, wheat and soybean .
Asian brown clouds impact on Himalayan glaciers
Asian brown clouds carry large amounts of soot and black carbon which are deposited on the glaciers. This could lead to higher absorption of the sun's heat and potentially contributing to the increased melting of glaciers . The Himalayan glaciers provide the source of many of Asia’s great rivers, with millions of people depending on them for food and water and because Asian brown clouds increase atmospheric temperature these glaciers have been decreasing over the past decades.
Asian brown clouds impact on agriculture
Dimming induced by atmospheric brown clouds is considered the major cause of the changing pattern of rainfall in Asia, with decreasing rainfall in some parts while other parts experience intense floods. Asian brown clouds are interfering with centuries old monsoon patterns with disastrous consequences for food production . The large concentration of ozone in atmospheric brown clouds could decrease crop yields by as much as 20% [29, 31].
Asian brown cloud impact on human health
Effect of NNPs on environmental hydroxyl radicals concentration and ozone depletion in the atmosphere
Effect of NNPs on the decrease of environmental stratospheric temperature
Accumulation of ENPs in selected biological matrices
While the description of the ecotoxicity of NPs is not a central aim of this manuscript NP exposure related effects have been shown for a range of test organisms and NPs. TiO2 NPs were shown to adsorb on algal cell surface, resulting in the increase of cellular weight by more than 2 fold and affecting the algae’s ability to float and resulting in reduced sunlight availability for photosynthesis . The toxicity of TiO2 NPs on green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus has been shown to be size dependent. Smaller NPs (~ 25 nm) showed a clear concentration-effect relationship (EC50 of about 40 mg/L), whereas the large particles (~ 100 nm) were found to be less toxic . Silver NPs exerted considerable toxicity in a nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans), especially decreasing the reproduction potential and increased enzyme induction and protein formation  but have been shown to also affect a range of other organisms too . NPs may impair the function or reproductive cycles of earthworms, which play a key role in nutrient cycling  hence possessing a hazard to induce ecological imbalances.
Human exposure to nanoparticles
Exposure of humans to NPs mainly occur through natural routes (oral, pulmonary or skin uptake). Exposure assessment is difficult but necessary [8, 57–59]. Furthermore many intentional processes such as medical applications may directly inject ENPs into the human body. Under practical conditions the most important routes of uptake for ENPs are inhalation or oral uptake , but this has not been specifically studied. More information is available for accidentally released NPs from combustion engines especially diesel exhaust [60, 61]. In case of aerosolized silver-containing NPs that are widely used in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties, environmental and human health risk were reviewed in detail . NPs come in the direct contact with skin as they are widely used in various cosmetics and personal care products, and hence the assessment of toxicity due to dermal route of exposure is very critical . While NPs are already present in food products such as ketchup, intake of NPs through food is another area where exposure assessment is crucial but very little information available on population exposures through ingestion . To facilitate the toxicity assessment of NPs exposure to human, the establishment of exposure registries were recommended to enable the conduct of large-scale prospective multi-center epidemiologic studies .
Human health impact of nanoparticles
Inhaled NPs are likely to evade phagocytosis, penetrate lung tissue, reaching interstitial spaces and enter blood circulation [67–69]. In the cardiovascular system platelet aggregation, and enhanced vascular thrombosis were observed . Via the blood stream NPs can finally reach sensitive target sites such as lymph nodes, spleen, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas, bone marrow and brain [19, 67, 68, 71–73]. Cell membrane penetration and particle accumulation in diverse cellular organelles (e.g. mitochondria) can finally lead to injurious responses within the crucial target organs and inflammation, immunotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and malignancy have been attributed to the nanoparticle-associated oxidative stress [18, 21, 74–77]. The oxidative stress resulting from the exposure to quartz and carbon black NPs can pose pronounced effects like interstitial fibrosis and airway inflammation [78–80].
Nanotechnology, as a strongly growing and widely applied science, has a high potential of global socioeconomic value. On one hand, the new features of designed NPs provide unprecedented technical capabilities thereby enabling them to perform absolutely novel tasks in technology and science. Unfortunately, just the same new qualities can concurrently also include undesired intrinsic features, which sometimes lead to harmful interactions with exposed organisms.
In coherence with the described alarming aspects it seems to be a high time to establish linkages between direct and indirect health impact of NP exposure and evaluate the consensus among researchers and policy makers regarding the knowledge base. The causal diagram approach has proven to be a suitable conceptualization, simplification and visualization technique that allows communication linking the scientific disciplines involved, as documented by a wide range of examples [1, 2, 81, 82]. In the near future it is envisaged to use this diagram as the basis for an internet-based tool for knowledge assessment. These causal diagrams provide an important platform to identify knowledge gaps and potential agreements or disagreements on the effect of NPs on various environmental processes and their impact on human health and can contribute to sustainable governance regarding the future use of NPs.
The work has been funded by the EU FP6 coordination action HENVINET, contract no 037019. The contribution of ACG was in part made possible within NanEAU (FNR/08/SR/07 - Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg). MD’s contribution was supported by a grant from Norway through the Norwegian Financial Mechanism in the frame of the Polish-Norwegian Research Grant (PNRF-122-AI-1/07). The authors are also grateful to the reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions and to Vanessa Peardon for her proofreading.
This article has been published as part of Environmental Health Volume 11 Supplement 1, 2012: Approaching complexities in health and environment. The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://www.ehjournal.net/supplements/11/S1.
- Keune H, Gutleb AC, Zimmer KE, Ravnum S, Yang A, Bartonova A, von Krauss MK: We’re only in it for the knowledge? A problem solving turn in environment and health expert elicitation. Environ Health. 2012Google Scholar
- Zimmer KE, Gutleb AC, Ravnum S, Krayer von Krauss M, Murk AJ, Ropstad E, Skaare JU, Eriksen GS, Koppe J, Magnanti BL, Yang A, Bartonova A, Keune H: Policy relevant results from an expert elicitation on the health risks of phthalates. Environ Health. 2012Google Scholar
- Powell MC, Kanarek MS: Nanomaterial health effects--part 1: background and current knowledge. Wisc Med J. 2006, 105: 16-20. [http://www.wisconsinmedicalsociety.org/_WMS/publications/wmj/pdf/105/2/16.pdf]Google Scholar
- Poland CA, Duffin R, Kinloch I, Maynard A, Wallace WAH, Seaton A, Stone V, Brown S, MacNee W, Donaldson K: Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos like pathogenicity in a pilot study. Nat Nanotechnol. 2008, 3: 423-428. 10.1038/nnano.2008.111.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takagi A, Hirose A, Nishimura T, Fukumori N, Ogata A, Ohashi N, Kitajima S, Kanno J: Induction of mesothelioma in p53 +/- mouse by intraperitoneal application of multi-wall carbon nanotube. J Toxicol Sci. 2008, 33: 105-116. 10.2131/jts.33.105.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DEFRA: Characterizing the potential risk posed by engineered nanoparticles. 2007, Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK, 91-[http://www.defra.gov.uk/publications/files/pb12901-nanoparticles-riskreport-071218.pdf]Google Scholar
- Buzea C, Pacheco II, Robbie K: Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity. Biointerphas. 2007, 2: MR17-MR71. 10.1116/1.2815690.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thomas T, Bahadori T, Savage N, Thomas K: Moving Towards Exposure and Risk Evaluation of Nanomaterials: Challenges and Future Directions. Wiley Interdisc Rev - Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2009, 1: 426-433. 10.1002/wnan.34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stone V, Nowack B, Baun A, van den Brink N, Kammer F, Dusinska M, Handy R, Hankin S, Hassellöv M, Joner E, Fernandes TF: Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterization. Sci Total Environ. 2010, 408 (7): 1745-1754. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.035.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hund-Rinke K, Simon M: Ecotoxic effect of photocatalytic active nanoparticles TiO2 on algae and daphnids. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2006, 13: 225-232. 10.1065/espr2006.06.311.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Navarro E, Baun A, Behra R, Hartmann NB, Filser J, Miao AJ, Quigg A, Santschi PH, Sigg L: Environmental behavior and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants, and fungi. Ecotoxicol. 2008, 17: 372-386. 10.1007/s10646-008-0214-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Johnston BD, Scown TM, Moger J, Cumberland SA, Baalousha M, Linge K, van Aerle R, Jarvis K, Lead JR, Tyler CR: Bioavailability of Nanoscale Metal Oxides TiO2, CeO2, and ZnO to Fish. Environ Sci Technol. 2010, 44: 1144-1151. 10.1021/es901971a.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu S, Oberdörster E, Haasch ML: Toxicity of an engineered nanoparticle (fullerene, C60) in two aquatic species, Daphnia and fathead minnow. Marine Env Res. 2006, 60: 5-9. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113606000444]View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu X, Wang J, Zhang X, Chang Y, Chen Y: Trophic transfer of TiO2 nanoparticles from daphnia to zebrafish in a simplified freshwater food chain. Chemosphere. 2010, 79: 928-933. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.03.022.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Handy RD, Henry TB, Scown TM, Johnston BD, Tyler CR: Manufactured nanoparticles: their uptake and effects on fish—a mechanistic analysis. Ecotoxicol. 2008, 17: 396-409. 10.1007/s10646-008-0205-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koelmans AA, Nowack B, Wiesner MR: Comparison of manufactured and black carbon nanoparticle concentrations in aquatic sediments. Environ Pollut. 2009, 157: 1110-1116. 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.09.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kellogg CA, Griffin DW: Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust. Trends Ecol Evol. 2006, 21: 638-644. 10.1016/j.tree.2006.07.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Borm PJA, Robbins D, Haubold S, Kuhlbusch T, Fissan H, Donaldson K, Schins R, Stone V, Kreyling W, Lademann J, Krutmann J, Warheit D, Oberdörster E: The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC. Particle Fibre Toxicol. 2006, 3: 11-10.1186/1743-8977-3-11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oberdörster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, Kreyling W, Cox C: Translocation of Inhaled Ultrafine Particles to the Brain. Inhal Toxicol. 2004, 16: 437-445. 10.1080/08958370490439597.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- NMP Expert Advisory Group (EAG): Position paper on future RTD Activities of NMP for the period 2010-2015. [http://ec.europa.eu/research/industrial_technologies/pdf/nmp-expert-advisory-group-report_en.pdf]
- Pacurari M, Castranova V, Vallyathan V: Single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes versus asbestos: are the carbon nanotubes a new health risk to humans?. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010, 73: 378-95. 10.1080/15287390903486527.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hochella MF, Lower SK, Maurice PA, Penn RL, Sahai N, Sparks DL, Twining BS: Nanominerals, mineral nanoparticles and earth systems. Science. 2008, 319: 1631-1635. 10.1126/science.1141134.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kulmala M, Kerminen VM: On the formation and growth of atmospheric nanoparticles. Atmospheric Res. 2008, 90: 132-150. 10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.01.005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scown TM, van Aerle R, Tyler CR: Do engineered nanoparticles pose a significant threat to the aquatic environment?. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2010, 40: 653-670. 10.3109/10408444.2010.494174.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger KD, Hanse SF: Setting the limits for engineered nanoparticles in European surface waters – are current approaches appropriate?. J Environ Monit. 2009, 11: 1774-1781. 10.1039/b909730a.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klaine SJ, Alvarez PJJ, Batley GE, Fernandes TF, Handy RD, Lyon DY, Mahendra S, McLaughlin MJ, Lead JR: Nanomaterials in the environment: Behavior, fate, bioavailability and effects. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008, 27: 1825-1851. 10.1897/08-090.1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Quafoku NP: Terrestrial nanoparticles and their controls on soil/geo-processes and reactions. Advan Agronom. 2010, 107: 33-91. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065211310070021]View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brar SK, Verma M, Tyagi RD, Surampalli RY: Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - evidence and impacts. Waste Man. 2010, 30: 504-520. 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.10.012.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- UNEP Assessment Report, The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and Other Environmental Impacts. 2002, UNEP/DEWA/RS, 02-3. [http://www.rrcap.unep.org/abc/impactstudy/]
- Gustafsson O, Kruså M, Zencak Z, Sheesley RJ, Granat L, Engström E, Praveen PS, Rao PSP, Leck C, Rodhe H: Brown clouds over South Asia: biomass or fossil fuel combustion?. Science. 2009, 323: 495-10.1126/science.1164857.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ramanathan V, Chung C, Kim D, Bettge T, Buja L, Kiehl JT, Washington WM, Fu Q, Sikka DR, Wild M: Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycles. Proc Nat Acad Sci, USA. 2005, 102: 5326-5333. 10.1073/pnas.0500656102.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Engling G, Gelencser A: Atmospheric Brown Clouds: From Local Air Pollution to Climate Change. Elements. 2010, 6 (4): 223-228. 10.2113/gselements.6.4.223.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Griffin DW: Atmospheric movement of microorganisms in clouds of desert dust and implications for human health. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007, 20 (3): 459-77. 10.1128/CMR.00039-06.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hua NP, Kobayashi F, Iwasaka Y, Shi G, Naganuma T: Detailed identification of desert-originated bacteria carried by Asian dust storms to Japan. Aerobiologia. 2007, 23 (4): 291-298. 10.1007/s10453-007-9076-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Prinn RG, Huang J, Weiss RF, Cunnold DM, Fraser PJ, Simmonds PG, McCulloch A, Harth C, Salameh P, O'Doherty D, Wang RHJ, Porter L, Miller BR: Evidence for substantial variations of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals in the past two decades. Science. 2001, 292: 1882-1888. 10.1126/science.1058673.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Manning MR, Lowe DC, Moss RC, Bodeker GE, Allan W: Short-term variations in the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. Nature. 2005, 436: 1001-1004. 10.1038/nature03900.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilson SR, Solomon KR, Tang X: Changes in tropospheric composition and air quality due to stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2007, 6: 301-10.1039/b700022g.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rohrer F, Berresheim H: Strong correlation between levels of tropospheric hydroxyl radicals and solar ultraviolet radiation. Nature. 2006, 442: 184-187. 10.1038/nature04924.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tromp TK, Shia RL, Allen M, Eiler JM, Yung YL: Potential environmental impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere. Science. 2003, 300: 1740-1742. 10.1126/science.1085169.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Biswas P, Wu C: Nanoparticles and the environment. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 2005, 55: 708-746. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10473289.2005.10464656]View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO: Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Ecotoxicol. 2008, 17: 387-395. 10.1007/s10646-008-0208-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Holbrook RD, Murphy KE, Morrow JB, Cole KD: Trophic transfer of nanoparticles in a simplified invertebrate food web. Nature Nanotech. 2008, 3: 352-355. 10.1038/nnano.2008.110.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bouldin JL, Ingle TM, Sengupta A, Alexander R, Hannigan RE, Buchanan RA: Aqueous toxicity and food chain transfer of quantum dots in freshwater algae and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008, 27: 1958-1963. 10.1897/07-637.1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin S, Reppert J, Hu Q, Hudson JS, Reid ML, Ratnikova TA, RAo AM, Luo H, Ke PC: Uptake, translocation, and transmission of carbon nanomaterials in rice plants. Small. 2009, 5: 1128-1132.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baun A, Sørensen SN, Rasmussen RF, Hartmann NB, Koch CB: Toxicity and bioaccumulation of xenobiotic organic compounds in the presence of aqueous suspensions of aggregates of nano-C60. Aquat Toxicol. 2008, 86: 379-387. 10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.11.019.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin D, Xing B: Root uptake and phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Environ Sci Technol. 2008, 42 (15): 5580-5585. 10.1021/es800422x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hischemöller A, Nordmann J, Ptacek P, Mummenhoff K, Haase M: In-vivo imaging of the uptake of upconversion nanoparticles by plant roots. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2009, 5 (3): 278-284. 10.1166/jbn.2009.1032.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cifuentes Z, Custardoy L, de la Fuente JM, Marquina C, Ibarra MR, Rubiales D, Pérez-de-Luque A: Absorption and translocation to the aerial part of magnetic carbon-coated nanoparticles through the root of different crop plants. J Nanobiotechnology. 2010, 8: 26-10.1186/1477-3155-8-26.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Da Silva LC, Oliva MA, Azevedo AA, De Araujo JM: Responses of restinga plant species to pollution from an iron pelletization factory. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2006, 175: 241-256. 10.1007/s11270-006-9135-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Canas JE, Long M, Nations S, Vadan R, Dai L, Luo M, Ambikapathi R, Lee EH, Olszyk D: Effects of functionalized and nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on root elongation of selected crop species. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008, 27: 1922-1931. 10.1897/08-117.1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang L, Watts DJ: Particle surface characteristics may play an important role in phytotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles. Toxicol Lett. 2005, 158: 122-132. 10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.03.003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nielsen HD, Berry LS, Stone V, Burridge TR, Fernandes TF: Interactions between carbon black nanoparticles and the brown algae Fucus serratus: Inhibition of fertilization and zygotic development. Nanotoxicol. 2008, 2: 88-89. 10.1080/17435390802109185.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wild E, Jones KC: Novel method for the direct visualization of in vivo nanomaterials and chemical interactions in plants. Environ Sci Technol. 2009, 43: 5290-5294. 10.1021/es900065h.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roh J, Sim SJ, Yi J, Park K, Chung KH, Ryu D, Choi J: Ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles on the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using functional ecotoxicogenomics. Environ Sci Technol. 2009, 43: 3933-3940. 10.1021/es803477u.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kruszewski M, Brzoska K, Brunborg G, Asare N, Dobrzynska M, Dusinska M, Fjellsbø L, Georgantzopoulou A, Gromadzka J, Gutleb AC, Lankoff A, Magdolenova M, Runden Pran E, Rinna A, Instanes C, Sandberg WJ, Schwarze P, Stepkowski T, Wojewódzka M, Refsnes M: Toxicity of silver nanomaterials in higher eukaryotes. Advances In Molecular Toxicology. Edited by: James C. Fishbein. 2011, Elsevier, 5 (5): 179-218.Google Scholar
- Scott-Fordsmand JJ, Krogh PH, Schaefer M, Johansen A: The toxicity testing of double-walled nanotubes-contaminated food to Eisenia veneta earthworms. Ecotoxicol Environ Safet. 2008, 71: 616-619. 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.04.011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Madl AK, Pinkerton KE: Health effects of inhaled engineered and incidental nanoparticles. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2009, 39: 629-658. 10.1080/10408440903133788.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Simkó M, Mattsson MO: Risks from accidental exposures to engineered nanoparticles and neurological health effects: a critical review. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2010, 7: 42-10.1186/1743-8977-7-42.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pauluhn J: Comparative pulmonary response to inhaled nanostructures: considerations on test design and endpoints. Inhal Toxicol. 2009, 21: 40-54. 10.1080/08958370902962291.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hesterberg TW, Long CM, Lapin CA, Hamade AK, Valberg PA: Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and nanoparticle exposures: What do DEP human clinical studies tell us about potential human health hazards of nanoparticles?. Inhal Toxicol. 2010, 22: 679-694. 10.3109/08958371003758823.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cassee FR, van Balen EC, Singh C, Green D, Muijser H, Weinstein J, Dreher K: Exposure, health and ecological effects review of engineered nanoscale cerium and cerium oxide associated with its use as a fuel additive. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2011, 41 (3): 213-29. 10.3109/10408444.2010.529105.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Quadros ME, Marr LC: Environmental and human health risks of aerosolized silver nanoparticles. Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2010, 60: 770-781. 10.3155/1047-32184.108.40.2060.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crosera M, Bovenzi M, Maina G, Adami G, Zanette C, Florio C, Larese FF: Nanoparticle dermal absorption and toxicity; a review of the literature. Intl. Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009, 82: 1043-1055. 10.1007/s00420-009-0458-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nohynek GJ, Antignac E, Re T, Toutain H: Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients. Toxicol and Appl Pharmacol. 2010, 243: 239-259. 10.1016/j.taap.2009.12.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bouwmeester H, Dekkers S, Noordam MY, Hagens WI, Bulder AS, de Heer C, ten Voorde SECG, Wijnhoven SWP, Marvin HJP, Sips AJAM: Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009, 53: 52-62. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2008.10.008.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nasterlack M, Zober A, Oberlinner C: Considerations on occupational medical surveillance in employees handling nanoparticles. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008, 81 (6): 721-726. 10.1007/s00420-007-0245-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nemmar A, Hoet PH, Vanquickenborne B, Dinsdale D, Thomeer M, Hoylaerts MF, Vanbilloen H, Mortelmans L, Nemery B: Passage of inhaled particles into the blood circulation in humans. Circulation. 2002, 105 (4): 411-4. 10.1161/hc0402.104118.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Furuyama A, Kanno S, Kobayashi T, Hirano S: Extrapulmonary translocation of intratracheally instilled fine and ultrafine particles via direct and alveolar macrophage-associated routes. Arch Toxicol. 2009, 83 (5): 429-37. 10.1007/s00204-008-0371-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Elder A, Oberdörster G: Translocation and effects of ultrafine particles outside of the lung. Clin Occup Environ Med. 2006, 5 (4): 785-96.Google Scholar
- Radomski A, Jurasz P, Alonso-Escalano D, Drews J, Morandi M, Malinski T, Radomski MW: Nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation and vascular thrombosis. Br J Pharmacol. 2005, 146: 882-893. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706386.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mills L N, Amin N, Robinson D S, Anand A, Davies J, Patel D, de la Fuente M J, Cassee R F, Boon A N, Macnee W, Millar M A, Donaldson K, Newby E D: Do inhaled carbon nanoparticles translocate directly into the circulation in humans?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med . 2006, 173: 426-431. 10.1164/rccm.200506-865OC. [http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/content/173/4/426.long]View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rejman J, Oberle V, Zuhorn IS, Hoekstra D: Size-dependent internalization of particles via the pathways of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Biochem J. 2004, 377: 159-169. 10.1042/BJ20031253.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lockman PR, Koziara JM, Mumper RJ, Allen DD: Nanoparticle surface charges alter blood-brain barrier integrity and permeability. J Drug Target. 2004, 12: 635-641. 10.1080/10611860400015936.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim JS, Yoon TJ, Yu KN, Kim BG, Park SJ, Kim HW, Lee KH, Park SB, Lee JK, Cho MH: Toxicity and tissue distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in mice. Toxicol Sci. 2006, 89: 338-347.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pacurari M, Yin XJ, Ding M, Leonard SS, Schwegler-berry D, Ducatman BS, Chirila M, Endo M, Castranova V, Vallyathan V: Oxidative and molecular interactions of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in normal and malignant human mesothelial cells. Nanotoxicol. 2008, 2: 155-170. 10.1080/17435390802318356.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jaurand MF, Renier A, Daubriac J: Mesothelioma: do asbestos and carbon nanotubes pose the same health risk?. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2009, 6: 16-10.1186/1743-8977-6-16.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rahman Q, Lohani M, Dopp E, Pemsel H, Jonas L, Weiss DG, Schiffmann D: Evidence that ultrafine titanium dioxide induces micronuclei and apoptosis in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts. Environ Health Persp. 2002, 110: 797-800. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240951/?tool=pubmed]View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia T, Li N, Nel AE: Potential health impact of nanoparticles. Ann Rev Pub Health. 2009, 29: 137-150.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Donaldson K, Brown D, Clouter A, Duffin R, MacNee W, Renwick L: The pulmonary toxicology of ultrafine particles. J Aerosol Med. 2002, 15: 213-10.1089/089426802320282338.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia T, Kovochich M, Brant J, Hotze M, Sempf J, Oberley T, Sioutas C, Yeh JI, Wiesner MR, Nel AE: Comparison of the abilities of ambient and manufactured nanoparticles to induce cellular toxicity according to an oxidative stress paradigm. Nano Lett. 2006, 6: 1794-1807. 10.1021/nl061025k.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nel A, Xia T, Mädler L, Li N: Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science. 2006, 311: 622-627. 10.1126/science.1114397.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morgan MG, Adams PJ, Keith DW: Elicitation of expert judgments of aerosol forcing. Clim Change. 2006, 75: 195-214. 10.1007/s10584-005-9025-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.