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Table 2 Estimates of economic costs associated with air pollution

From: Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures: application of toxicological information in health economic estimation

Adverse consequence Context Economic cost ($billions) % GDP % of Global GDP
Asthma U.S. [57] 2.33 [0.728–2.5] 0.02 [0.006–0.021] <0.01
EU [82] 1.70 [0.568–1.98] 0.01 [0.003–0.012] <0.01
EU city children [97] 0.151 [0.03–0.3]a <0.01 <0.01
Preterm birth U.S. [98] 4.3 [2.06–8.22] <0.01 <0.01
Cardiovascular EU [99] 37.24 [24.47–49.83]a 0.22 [0.14–0.29] 0.06
All health impacts OECD countries [100] 500 [300–1250] 1.2 [0.7–2.8] 0.8 [0.5–2]
China [100] 483 [300–1200] 8 [5–20] 0.8 [0.5–2]
India [100] 120 [74–300] 7 [4–17] 0.2 [0.1–5]
Sum (OECD, China, India) 1100 [700–2760] 2.2 [1.3–5.4] 1.8 [1.1–4.4]
World (WHO) [52] 1177 [736–2942] 1.9 [1.1–4.6] 1.9 [1.1–4.6]
World (GBD) [3] 1083 [677–2709] 1.7 [1.1–4.3] 1.7 [1.1–4.3]
  1. Base case estimates are presented along with range [low/high end estimates] from sensitivity analysis or 95 CIa. All estimates are given in $2010, a 1.33 rate change € /$ is used, and for estimates prior to 2010, inflated adjustments are made. OECD estimates are based on DALYs reported for OECD countries (High Income Countries, HICs), China (Upper Middle Income Country, UMIC), & India (Lower Middle Income Country, LMIC). Our estimates of DALYs for OECD, WHO and GBD are based on Value of Life Year (VOLY) [50] adjusted to $2010 PPP and for inflation and then adjusted per income group levels from World Bank GNI per capita in $ppp2010. For consistency we valued OECD DALY estimates based on VOLY instead of using Value of Statistical Life Year (VSL) for mortality costs (additional 10% for morbidity included) as reported in OECD [100]