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Table 4 Environmental burdens of disease in terms of DALYs, economic value, and percent of GDP for major health outcomes based on attributable risks derived by WHO [29]a

From: Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures: application of toxicological information in health economic estimation

Disease DALYs (% fraction of total burden of disease in DALYs) Environmental AF (%) DALYs due to environmental risk factors Economic cost ($billions) % of Global GDP
Respiratory diseases
 Asthma 25,202,418 (0.9) 44 (26–53) 11,055,150 200 [124–500] 0.3 [0.2–0.8]
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 92,376,604 (3.4) 35 (20–48) 32,280,160 400 [250–1000] 0.6 [0.4–1.5]
 Lower respiratory infections 146,863,685 (5.4) 35 (27–41) 51,752,605 530 [330–1320] 0.8 [0.5–2.1]
Cancers
 Lung cancer 38,535,303 (1.4) 36 (17–52) 13,902,105 285 [180–720] 0.5 [0.3–1.1]
 Other cancers 185,421,704 (6.8) 16 (7–41) 31,047,781 715 [450–1800] 1.1 [0.7–2.8]
Cardiovascular diseases
 Ischemic heart diseases 165,717,210 (6.0) 35 (26–46) 58,561,915 1065 [670–2660] 1.8 [1.1–4.2]
 Stroke 141,348,082 (5.2) 42 (24–53) 58,985,984 843 [527–2108] 1.3 [0.8–3.3]
Neuropsychiatric diseases
 Childhood behavioral disorders 6,208,771 (0.22) 12 (3–36) 742,156 12 [8–30] 0.02 [0.01–0.05]]]
Total    258,327,866 4050 [2500–10,140] 6.5 [4–15.8]
  1. aTotal DALYs, 2,743,857,491 (2012 values); Breakdown of DALYS for LMICs and HICs from WHO supplement [29]