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Table 2 Results from adjusted multiple linear regression models of diphtheria and tetanus antibody outcomes for single and combined metal exposures among the overall study population (n = 502)

From: Evaluating the effects between metal mixtures and serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children: a prospective birth cohort study

 Water arsenicWater manganeseBlood lead
Change (%) (95% CI)Change (%) (95% CI)Change (%) (95% CI)
Single elementaCombinedbSingle elementaCombinedbSingle elementaCombinedb
Diphtheria IgG antibody
 Pregnancy−3.4 (−7.2, 0.6)−2.9 (− 7.0, 1.5)−1.6 (−8.3, 5.5)−1.1 (− 7.9, 6.2)4.7 (− 4.9, 15.3)4.1 (− 5.9, 15.2)
 Toddlerhood1 (− 2.7, 4.9)0.8 (− 2.9, 4.8)2.7 (− 3.1, 8.8)2.7 (− 3.2, 8.9)5.9 (− 10.4, 25.2)4.6 (− 11.9, 24.1)
 Early childhood1.7 (− 1.6, 5.1)2 (− 1.4, 5.5)− 0.7 (− 5.8, 4.8)−1.1 (− 6.4, 4.5)−6.4 (− 20.4, 10.1)−6.2 (− 20.5, 10.5)
Tetanus IgG antibody
 Pregnancy0.5 (− 3.8, 5.0)2.6 (− 2.0, 7.5)5.1 (− 2.5, 13.3)5.4 (−2.3, 13.6)10.2 (− 0.6, 22.1)13.3 (1.7, 26.2)
 Toddlerhood− 0.8 (− 4.7, 3.3)−1 (− 4.9, 3.1)− 2.7 (− 8.5, 3.5)−3.9 (− 9.7, 2.3)1.6 (− 15.5, 22.2)3.2 (− 14.1, 24.1)
 Early childhood−0.1 (− 3.6, 3.6)0.4 (− 3.2, 4.1)− 0.6 (− 6.1, 5.2)−1.5 (− 7.1, 4.4)2 (− 14.3, 21.4)3.4 (− 13.2, 23.2)
  1. Note: Missing values of arsenic, manganese, and lead were estimated by multiple imputation. All models are adjusted for maternal education, breastfeeding duration, and child sex. Outcomes are interpreted as percent change in median antibody concentration per doubling in given exposure
  2. a Models include includes single metal exposure category (arsenic, manganese, or lead) at all three periods of exposure
  3. b Model includes all metal exposure categories (arsenic, manganese, and lead) at all three periods of exposure