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Table 3 Hazard and odds ratios (per one Interquartile range for whole population) between exposures and Non-Alzheimer’s dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Multiple sclerosis

From: Road proximity, air pollution, noise, green space and neurologic disease incidence: a population-based cohort study

ExposuresNon-Alzheimer’s dementia*Parkinson’s disease*Alzheimer’s disease**Multiple sclerosis**
Hazard ratio (95% CI) per Interquartile Range [IQR]Hazard ratio (95% CI) per Interquartile Range [IQR]Odds ratio (95% CI) per Interquartile Range [IQR]Odds ratio (95% CI) per Interquartile Range [IQR]
Road proximity
 Highway < 50 m1.03 (0.91, 1.16)1.12 (0.91, 1.38)1.19 (0.74, 1.91)1.20 (0.69, 2.09)
 Highway < 50 m + Greenness1.02 (0.87, 1.20)1.12 (0.85, 1.46)0.85 (0.42, 1.74)1.09 (0.52, 2.29)
 Highway < 150 m1.10 (1.02, 1.19)1.06 (0.93, 1.22)1.03 (0.75, 1.41)0.97 (0.68, 1.39)
 Highway < 150 m + Greenness1.06 (0.96, 1.17)1.02 (0.86, 1.21)0.81 (0.53, 1.24)1.05 (0.66, 1.67)
 Major road < 50 m1.15 (1.08, 1.23)1.09 (0.96, 1.23)1.26 (0.96, 1.64)1.45 (1.06, 1.97)
 Major road < 50 m + Greenness1.15 (1.07, 1.24)1.02 (0.89, 1.18)1.12 (0.81, 1.54)1.75 (1.19, 2.54)
 Major road < 50 m or Highway < 150 m1.14 (1.07, 1.20)1.07 (0.96, 1.18)1.19 (0.95, 1.49)1.25 (0.96, 1.63)
 Major road < 50 m or Highway < 150 m + Greenness1.12 (1.05, 1.20)0.99 (0.88, 1.13)1.02 (0.77, 1.36)1.50 (1.08, 2.08)
Air pollution
 PM2.5 (μg/m3)1.02 (0.98, 1.05)
[1.54]
1.09 (1.02, 1.16)
[1.65]
0.90 (0.76, 1.07)
[1.54]
1.25 (0.93, 1.70)
[1.72]
 PM2.5 (μg/m3) + Noise1.02 (0.98, 1.05)1.08 (1.01, 1.15)0.91 (0.76, 1.09)1.40 (0.98, 1.97)
 PM2.5 (μg/m3) + Greenness1.02 (0.98, 1.05)1.08 (1.01, 1.15)0.95 (0.80, 1.13)1.43 (1.04, 1.97)
 Black carbon (μg/m3)1.01 (0.98, 1.04)
[1.06]
1.03 (0.97, 1.08)
[1.02]
1.02 (0.88, 1.18)
[1.09]
0.93 (0.75, 1.15)
[0.90]
 Black carbon (μg/m3) + Noise1.01 (0.98, 1.04)1.02 (0.96, 1.09)0.91 (0.76, 1.08)0.95 (0.74, 1.23)
 Black carbon (μg/m3) + Greenness1.01 (0.98, 1.04)1.01 (0.96, 1.07)1.05 (0.90, 1.22)0.97 (0.78, 1.21)
 NO2 (ppb)1.02 (0.99, 1.06)
[9.06]
1.12 (1.05, 1.20)
[9.03]
0.84 (0.70, 0.99)
[8.96]
1.02 (0.78, 1.44)
[8.70]
 NO2 (ppb) + Noise1.01 (0.97, 1.06)1.09 (1.01, 1.18)0.77 (0.63, 0.95)1.06 (0.69, 1.62)
 NO2 (ppb) + Greenness1.02 (0.99, 1.06)1.10 (1.03, 1.19)0.87 (0.72, 0.15)1.16 (0.80, 1.68)
 NO (ppb)1.00 (0.96, 1.04)
[13.47]
1.03 (0.96, 1.11)
[13.59]
0.91 (0.77, 1.11)
[13.68]
0.85 (0.62, 1.16)
[13.41]
 NO (ppb) + Noise0.99 (0.95, 1.04)1.01 (0.93, 1.11)0.84 (0.67, 1.05)0.88 (0.59, 1.29)
 NO (ppb) + Greenness0.99 (0.95, 1.04)0.99 (0.92, 1.08)0.98 (0.80, 1.20)0.93 (0.66, 1.29)
Noise (Lden dB(A))1.01 (0.99, 1.04)
[5.53]
1.01 (0.97, 1.05)
[5.54]
0.99 (0.92, 1.08)
[5.75]
0.92 (0.82, 1.03)
[5.50]
Greenness (NDVI)0.95 (0.92, 0.97)
[0.11]
0.97 (0.93, 1.01)
[0.11]
1.24 (1.13, 1.35)
[0.12]
1.14 (1.00, 1.30)
[0.12]
  1. *Covariates included for Non-Alzheimer’s dementia and Parkinson’s disease: Age, sex, comorbidities, household income, education and ethnicity; **Covariates included for Alzheimer’s disease and Multiple sclerosis: comorbidities, household income, education and ethnicity