Fuller R, Landrigan PJ, Balakrishnan K, Bathan G, Bose-O'Reilly S, Brauer M, et al. Pollution and health: a progress update. Lancet Planet Health. 2022;6(6):e535–47.
Stieb DM, Chen L, Eshoul M, Judek S. Ambient air pollution, birth weight and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2012;117:100–11.
Pedersen M, Giorgis-Allemand L, Bernard C, Aguilera I, Andersen AM, Ballester F, et al. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight: a European cohort study (ESCAPE). Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1(9):695–704.
Weinmayr G, Romeo E, De Sario M, Weiland SK, Forastiere F. Short-term effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118(4):449–57.
Mok PLH, Antonsen S, Agerbo E, Brandt J, Geels C, Christensen JH, et al. Exposure to ambient air pollution during childhood and subsequent risk of self-harm: a national cohort study. Prev Med. 2021;152(Pt 1):106502.
Milojevic A, Dutey-Magni P, Dearden L, Wilkinson P. Lifelong exposure to air pollution and cognitive development in young children: the UK millennium cohort study. Environ Res Lett. 2021;16(5):055023.
GBD 2015 LRI Collaborators. Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory tract infections in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17(11):1133–61.
GBD 2019 Diseases and Injuries Collaborators. Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2020;396(10258):1204–22.
World Health Organization. More than 90% of the world’s children breathe toxic air every day. https://www.who.int/news/item/29-10-2018-more-than-90-of-the-worlds-children-breathe-toxic-air-every-day. Accessed 4 July 2022.
Larson PS, Espira L, Glenn BE, Larson MC, Crowe CS, Jang S, et al. Long-term PM2.5 exposure is associated with symptoms of acute respiratory infections among children under five years of age in Kenya, 2014. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(5):2525.
Agudelo-Castañeda DM, Calesso Teixeira E, Alves L, Fernández-Niño JA, Rodríguez-Villamizar LA. Monthly-term associations between air pollutants and respiratory morbidity in South Brazil 2013-2016: a Multi-City, time-series analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(20):3787.
Oh J, Han C, Lee DW, Jang Y, Choi YJ, Bae HJ, et al. Short-term exposure to fine particulate matter and hospitalizations for acute lower respiratory infection in Korean children: a time-series study in seven metropolitan cities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;18(1):144.
Cheng J, Su H, Xu Z. Intraday effects of outdoor air pollution on acute upper and lower respiratory infections in Australian children. Environ Pollut. 2021;268(Pt A):115698.
Xu H, Wang X, Tian Y, Tian J, Zeng Y, Guo Y, et al. Short-term exposure to gaseous air pollutants and daily hospitalizations for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children from 25 cities in China. Environ Res. 2022;212(Pt D):113493.
Yang H, Yan C, Li M, Zhao L, Long Z, Fan Y, et al. Short term effects of air pollutants on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases among children: a multi-city time-series study in China. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2021;231:113638.
Wu Y, Jin T, He W, Liu L, Li H, Liu C, et al. Associations of fine particulate matter and constituents with pediatric emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in Shanghai. China Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2021;236:113805.
Liang Z, Meng Q, Yang Q, Chen N, You C. Size-specific particulate matter associated with acute lower respiratory infection outpatient visits in children: a counterfactual analysis in Guangzhou. China Front Public Health. 2021;9:789542.
Wang ZB, Ren L, Lu QB, Zhang XA, Miao D, Hu YY, et al. The impact of weather and air pollution on viral infection and disease outcome among pediatric pneumonia patients in Chongqing, China, from 2009 to 2018: a prospective observational study. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73(2):e513–22.
Liu Y, Wang Y, Dong J, Wang J, Bao H, Zhai G. Association between air pollution and emergency department visits for upper respiratory tract infection in Lanzhou. China Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022;29(19):28816–28.
Ma Y, Yue L, Liu J, He X, Li L, Niu J, et al. Association of air pollution with outpatient visits for respiratory diseases of children in an ex-heavily polluted northwestern city, China. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):816.
Chen Y, Yang Y, Yao Y, Wang X, Xu Z. Spatial and dynamic effects of air pollution on under-five children's lower respiratory infections: an evidence from China 2006 to 2017. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022;29(17):25391–407.
Liu L, Chen YY, Wu T, Li HM. The drivers of air pollution in the development of western China: the case of Sichuan province. J Clean Prod. 2018;197(PTa1):1169–76.
Zhang XY, Wang YQ, Niu T, Zhang XC, Gong SL, Zhang YM, et al. Atmospheric aerosol compositions in China: spatial/temporal variability, chemical signature, regional haze distribution and comparisons with global aerosols. Atmos Chem Phys. 2012;12(258):779–99 (in Chinese).
Pu X, Wang L, Chen L, Pan J, Tang L, Wen J, et al. Differential effects of size-specific particulate matter on lower respiratory infections in children: a multi-city time-series analysis in Sichuan. China Environ Res. 2021;193:110581.
Altman DG, Bland JM. Interaction revisited: the difference between two estimates. BMJ. 2003;326(7382):219.
Zhang P, Zhou X. Health and economic impacts of particulate matter pollution on hospital admissions for mental disorders in Chengdu. Southwestern China Sci Total Environ. 2020;733:139114.
World Health Organization. WHO global air quality guidelines: particulate matter (P-M2.5 and PM10), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789240034228. Accessed 10 July 2022.
Liu Y, Pan J, Zhang H, Shi C, Li G, Peng Z, et al. Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and asthma mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;200(1):24–32.
Cheng CY, Cheng SY, Chen CC, Pan HY, Wu KH, Cheng FJ. Ambient air pollution is associated with pediatric pneumonia: a time-stratified case-crossover study in an urban area. Environ Health. 2019;18(1):77.
Lv C, Wang X, Pang N, Wang L, Wang Y, Xu T, et al. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among children in Jinan, China: a case-crossover study. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2017;67(6):669–76.
Horne BD, Joy EA, Hofmann MG, Gesteland PH, Cannon JB, Lefler JS, et al. Short-term elevation of fine particulate matter air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;198:759–66.
Xing YF, Xu YH, Shi MH, Lian YX. The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system. J Thorac Dis. 2016;8(1):E69–74.
Yang XY, Wen B, Han F, Wang C, Zhang SP, Wang J, et al. Acute effects of individual exposure to fine particulate matter on pulmonary function in schoolchildren. Biomed Environ Sci. 2020;33(9):647–59.
Vandini S, Corvaglia L, Alessandroni R, Aquilano G, Marsico C, Spinelli M, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants and correlation with meteorological factors and air pollutants. Ital J Pediatr. 2013;39(1):1.
Wrotek A, Badyda A, Czechowski PO, Owczarek T, Dąbrowiecki P, Jackowska T. Air Pollutants' concentrations are associated with increased number of RSV hospitalizations in polish children. J Clin Med. 2021;10(15):3224.
Nair H, Nokes DJ, Gessner BD, Dherani M, Madhi SA, Singleton RJ, et al. Global burden of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;375(9725):1545–55.
Carugno M, Dentali F, Mathieu G, Fontanella A, Mariani J, Bordini L, et al. PM10 exposure is associated with increased hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis among infants in Lombardy. Italy Environ Res. 2018;166:452–7.
Zhu L, Ge X, Chen Y, Zeng X, Pan W, Zhang X, et al. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution and childhood lower respiratory diseases. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):4414.
Meng Z, Qin G, Zhang B, Bai J. DNA damaging effects of sulfur dioxide derivatives in cells from various organs of mice. Mutagenesis. 2004;19(6):465–8.
Qin G, Wang J, Sang N. Sulfur dioxide inhibits expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes encoded by both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA in rat lungs. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(3):2527–34.
Schraufnagel DE, Balmes JR, Cowl CT, De Matteis S, Jung SH, Mortimer K, et al. Air pollution and noncommunicable diseases: a review by the forum of international respiratory Societies' environmental committee, part 1: the damaging effects of air pollution. Chest. 2019;155(2):409–16.
Goldstein E, Peek NF, Parks NJ, Hines HH, Steffey EP, Tark-ington B. Fate and distribution of inhaled nitrogen dioxide in rhesus monkeys. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1977;115(3):403–12.
Moldeus P. Toxicity induced by nitrogen dioxide in experimental animals and isolated cell systems. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1993;19:28–36.
Bai L, Su X, Zhao D, Zhang Y, Cheng Q, Zhang H, et al. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute bronchitis in children: season and age as modifiers. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018;72(5):426–33.
Odríguez-Villamizar LA, Rojas-Roa NY, Blanco-Becerra LC, Herrera-Galindo VM, Fernández-Niño JA. Short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory and circulatory morbidity in Colombia 2011-2014: a Multi-City, time-series analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(8):1610.
Salonen H, Salthammer T, Morawska L. Human exposure to NO2 in school and office indoor environments. Environ Int. 2019;130:104887.
Guerriero C, Chatzidiakou L, Cairns J, Mumovic D. The economic benefits of reducing the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near primary schools: the case of London. J Environ Manag. 2016;181:615–22.
Duijts L, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Moll HA. Prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of infectious diseases in infancy. Pediatrics. 2010;126(1):e18–25.
World Health Organization. World health statistics 2013. Geneva: World Health Organization Press; 2013.
Sarnat JA, Brown KW, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Koutrakis P. Ambient gas concentrations and personal particulate matter exposures: implications for studying the health effects of particles. Epidemiology. 2005;16(3):385–95.
Ueda K, Yamagami M, Ikemori F, Hisatsune K, Nitta H. Associations between fine particulate matter components and daily mortality in Nagoya. Japan J Epidemiol. 2016;26(5):249–57.
Xiao ZY, Jiang H. Characteristics of atmospheric NO2 over Sichuan basin. China Environ Sci. 2011;31(11):1782–8 (in Chinese).
Zhou H, Wang T, Zhou F, Liu Y, Zhao W, Wang X, et al. Ambient air pollution and daily hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children in Guiyang, China. Front Pediatr. 2019;7:400.
Chen MJ, Yang PH, Hsieh MT, Yeh CH, Huang CH, Yang CM, et al. Machine learning to relate PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations to outpatient visits for upper respiratory tract infections in Taiwan: a nationwide analysis. World J Clin Cases. 2018;6(8):200–6.
Zheng PW, Wang JB, Zhang ZY, Shen P, Chai PF, Li D, et al. Air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children in Ningbo, China: a time-series analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(23):18860–9.
Chen J, Shi C, Li Y, Ni H, Zeng J, Lu R, et al. Effects of short-term exposure to ambient airborne pollutants on COPD-related mortality among the elderly residents of Chengdu city in Southwest China. Environ Health Prev Med. 2021;26(1):7.
Strickland MJ, Gass KM, Goldman GT, Mulholland JA. Effects of ambient air pollution measurement error on health effect estimates in time-series studies: a simulation-based analysis. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2015;25(2):160–6.