Durante C, Grani G, Lamartina L, Filetti S, Mandel SJ, Cooper DS. The diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules: a review. JAMA. 2018;319(9):914–24.
Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F: Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. In.; 2020. https://gco.iarc.fr/today (2020). Accessed 10 May 2021.
Qian ZJ, Jin MC, Meister KD, Megwalu UC. Pediatric thyroid Cancer incidence and mortality trends in the United States, 1973-2013. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019;145(7):617–23.
Mirian C, Grønhøj C, Jensen DH, Jakobsen KK, Karnov K, Jensen JS, et al. Trends in thyroid cancer: retrospective analysis of incidence and survival in Denmark 1980–2014. Cancer Epidemiol. 2018;55:81–7.
Wang J, Yu F, Shang Y, Ping Z, Liu L. Thyroid cancer: incidence and mortality trends in China, 2005-2015. Endocrine. 2020;68(1):163–73.
Lei L, Shang Q, Liu W, Wang Y, Wang Y, Peng J. Incidences and epidemiologic trends of thyroid Cancer in Shenzhen, 2001~2015. China Cancer. 2019;28(07):504–8 In China.
Maniakas A, Davies L, Zafereo ME. Thyroid disease around the world. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2018;51(3):631–42.
Tang Z, Zhang J, Zhou Q, Xu S, Cai Z, Jiang G. Thyroid Cancer "epidemic": a socio-environmental health problem needs collaborative efforts. Environ Sci Technol. 2020;54(7):3725–7.
Li Q, Yu Y, Wang F, Chen S, Yin Y, Lin H, et al. Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;67(1):42–9.
Calderón R, Godoy F, Escudey M, Palma P. A review of perchlorate (ClO(4)(−)) occurrence in fruits and vegetables. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189(2):82.
Steinmaus CM. Perchlorate in water supplies: sources, exposures, and health effects. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2016;3(2):136–43.
Gan Z, Pi L, Li Y, Hu W, Su S, Qin X, et al. Occurrence and exposure evaluation of perchlorate in indoor dust and diverse food from Chengdu, China. Sci Total Environ. 2015;536:288–94.
Wu Q, Zhang T, Sun H, Kannan K. Perchlorate in tap water, groundwater, surface waters, and bottled water from China and its association with other inorganic anions and with disinfection byproducts. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;58(3):543–50.
Shi Y, Zhang P, Wang Y, Shi J, Cai Y, Mou S, et al. Perchlorate in sewage sludge, rice, bottled water and milk collected from different areas in China. Environ Int. 2007;33(7):955–62.
Eguchi A, Kunisue T, Wu Q, Trang PT, Viet PH, Kannan K, et al. Occurrence of perchlorate and thiocyanate in human serum from e-waste recycling and reference sites in Vietnam: association with thyroid hormone and iodide levels. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;67(1):29–41.
Leung AM, Pearce EN, Braverman LE. Environmental perchlorate exposure: potential adverse thyroid effects. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014;21(5):372–6.
Dohán O, De la Vieja A, Paroder V, Riedel C, Artani M, Reed M, et al. The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS): characterization, regulation, and medical significance. Endocr Rev. 2003;24(1):48–77.
Blount BC, Pirkle JL, Osterloh JD, Valentin-Blasini L, Caldwell KL. Urinary perchlorate and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent and adult men and women living in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(12):1865–71.
Steinmaus C, Miller MD, Cushing L, Blount BC, Smith AH. Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and nutrition examination survey 2007-08. Environ Res. 2013;123:17–24.
Pleus RC, Corey LM. Environmental exposure to perchlorate: a review of toxicology and human health. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018;358:102–9.
Zhang L, Fang C, Liu L, Liu X, Fan S, Li J, et al. A case-control study of urinary levels of iodine, perchlorate and thiocyanate and risk of papillary thyroid cancer. Environ Int. 2018;120:388–93.
NCNN: NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Thyroid Carcinoma. In.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network; 2018. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/default.aspx#thyroid (2018). Accessed 20 May 2021.
Hu J, Peng Y, Zheng T, Zhang B, Liu W, Wu C, et al. Effects of trimester-specific exposure to vanadium on ultrasound measures of fetal growth and birth size: a longitudinal prospective prenatal cohort study. Lancet Planet Health. 2018;2(10):e427–37.
Gardell AM, Dillon DM, Smayda LC, von Hippel FA, Cresko WA, Postlethwait JH, et al. Perchlorate exposure does not modulate temporal variation of whole-body thyroid and androgen hormone content in threespine stickleback. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;219:45–52.
York RG, Lewis E, Brown WR, Girard MF, Mattie DR, Funk KA, et al. Refining the effects observed in a developmental neurobehavioral study of ammonium perchlorate administered orally in drinking water to rats. I. Thyroid and reproductive effects. Int J Toxicol. 2005;24(6):403–18.
Wang K, Xu J, Li S, Liu S, Zhang L. Population-based study evaluating and predicting the probability of death resulting from thyroid cancer among patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Cancer Med. 2019;8(16):6977–85.
Mijović T, How J, Pakdaman M, Rochon L, Gologan O, Hier MP, et al. Body mass index in the evaluation of thyroid cancer risk. Thyroid. 2009;19(5):467–72.
Choi SW, Ryu SY, Han MA, Park J. The association between the socioeconomic status and thyroid cancer prevalence; based on the Korean National Health and nutrition examination survey 2010-2011. J Korean Med Sci. 2013;28(12):1734–40.
Schmid D, Ricci C, Behrens G, Leitzmann MF. Adiposity and risk of thyroid cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2015;16(12):1042–54.
Yeo Y, Shin DW, Han KD, Kim D, Kim TH, Chun S, et al. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the risk of thyroid cancer: a population-based Korean cohort study of 10 million people. Thyroid. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2019.0508.
Horton MK, Blount BC, Valentin-Blasini L, Wapner R, Whyatt R, Gennings C, et al. CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women. Environ Res. 2015;143(Pt A):1–9.
Siglin JC, Mattie DR, Dodd DE, Hildebrandt PK, Baker WH. A 90-day drinking water toxicity study in rats of the environmental contaminant ammonium perchlorate. Toxicol Sci. 2000;57(1):61–74.
Lawrence JE, Lamm SH, Pino S, Richman K, Braverman LE. The effect of short-term low-dose perchlorate on various aspects of thyroid function. Thyroid. 2000;10(8):659–63.
Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He X, Pino S, Seeley M, Beck B, et al. Effects of six months of daily low-dose perchlorate exposure on thyroid function in healthy volunteers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(7):2721–4.
Haymart MR, Repplinger DJ, Leverson GE, Elson DF, Sippel RS, Jaume JC, et al. Higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone level in thyroid nodule patients is associated with greater risks of differentiated thyroid cancer and advanced tumor stage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(3):809–14.
Wu X, Lun Y, Jiang H, Gang Q, Xin S, Duan Z, et al. Coexistence of thyroglobulin antibodies and thyroid peroxidase antibodies correlates with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and advanced tumor stage of papillary thyroid cancer. Endocrine. 2014;46(3):554–60.
Hoffmann S, Hofbauer LC, Scharrenbach V, Wunderlich A, Hassan I, Lingelbach S, et al. Thyrotropin (TSH)-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor in thyroid cancer cells in vitro: evaluation of TSH signal transduction and of angiogenesis-stimulating growth factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(12):6139–45.
McLachlan SM, Rapoport B. Why measure thyroglobulin autoantibodies rather than thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies? Thyroid. 2004;14(7):510–20.
Wang F, Wang Y, Wang L, Wang X, Sun C, Xing M, et al. Strong association of high urinary iodine with thyroid nodule and papillary thyroid cancer. Tumour Biol. 2014;35(11):11375–9.
Yang X, Sun J, Han J, Sun L, Wang H, Zhang D, et al. Iodine promotes thyroid cancer development via SPANXA1 through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Oncol Lett. 2019;18(1):637–44.
Zimmermann MB, Galetti V. Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies. Thyroid Res. 2015;8(1):8.
Xiu C, He Q, Zhao HJ, Yuan ZN, Guo LH, Wang FQ, et al. Strong correlation of abnormal serum and urinary iodine levels with papillary thyroid Cancer: a case-control study. Biomed Environ Sci. 2020;33(1):62–7.
Zhao H, Li H, Huang T. High iodine intake and central lymph node metastasis risk of papillary thyroid cancer. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2019;53:16–21.
Wang D, Yu S, Yin Y, Xie S, Cheng Q, Li H, et al. Iodine status of euthyroid adults: a cross-sectional, multicenter study. J Clin Lab Anal. 2019;33(4):e22837.
Soldin OP, Tractenberg RE, Pezzullo JC. Do thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels reflect urinary iodine concentrations? Ther Drug Monit. 2005;27(2):178–85.
Gostas DE, Larson-Meyer DE, Yoder HA, Huffman AE, Johnson EC. Dietary relationship with 24 h urinary iodine concentrations of Young adults in the mountain west region of the United States. Nutrients. 2020;12(1):121.
O'Kane SM, Mulhern MS, Pourshahidi LK, Strain JJ, Yeates AJ. Micronutrients, iodine status and concentrations of thyroid hormones: a systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2018;76(6):418–31.
Wang B, He W, Li Q, Jia X, Yao Q, Song R, et al. U-shaped relationship between iodine status and thyroid autoimmunity risk in adults. Eur J Endocrinol. 2019;181(3):255–66.
Latrofa F, Fiore E, Rago T, Antonangeli L, Montanelli L, Ricci D, et al. Iodine contributes to thyroid autoimmunity in humans by unmasking a cryptic epitope on thyroglobulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(11):E1768–74.
Pearce EN, Caldwell KL. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):898S–901S.
Huber DR, Blount BC, Mage DT, Letkiewicz FJ, Kumar A, Allen RH. Estimating perchlorate exposure from food and tap water based on US biomonitoring and occurrence data. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011;21(4):395–407.