Woodruff TJ, Zota AR, Schwartz JM. Environmental chemicals in pregnant women in the United States: NHANES 2003–2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;6:878–85.
Serrano SE, Braun J, Trasande L, Dills R, Sathyanarayana S. Phthalates and diet: a review of the food monitoring and epidemiology data. Environ Health. 2014;1:43.
Adibi JJ, Whyatt RM, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Camann D, Herrick R, et al. Characterization of phthalate exposure among pregnant women assessed by repeat air and urine samples. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;4:467–73.
Weschler CJ, Beko G, Koch HM, Salthammer T, Schripp T, Toftum J, et al. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and Di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from Air: experimental verification. Environ Health Perspect. 2015;10:928–34.
Tyrrell J, Melzer D, Henley W, Galloway TS, Osborne NJ. Associations between socioeconomic status and environmental toxicant concentrations in adults in the USA: NHANES 2001–2010. Environ Int. 2013;59:328–35.
Silva MJ, Barr DB, Reidy JA, Malek NA, Hodge CC, Caudill SP, et al. Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the U.S. population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2000. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;3:331–8.
Zota AR, Calafat AM, Woodruff TJ. Temporal trends in phthalate exposures: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;3:235–41.
Adibi JJ, Hauser R, Williams PL, Whyatt RM, Calafat AM, Nelson H, et al. Maternal urinary metabolites of Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate in relation to the timing of labor in a US multicenter pregnancy cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;8:1015–24.
Ferguson KK, Mcelrath TF, Meeker JD. Environmental phthalate exposure and preterm birth. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;1:61–7.
Werner EF, Braun JM, Yolton K, Khoury JC, Lanphear BP. The association between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and blood pressure in pregnancy: The HOME Study. Environ Health. 2015;14:75.
Lien YJ, Ku HY, Su PH, Chen SJ, Chen HY, Liao PC, et al. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2015;1:95–100.
Swan SH, Sathyanarayana S, Barrett ES, Janssen S, Liu F, Nguyen RH, et al. First trimester phthalate exposure and anogenital distance in newborns. Hum Reprod. 2015;4:963–72.
Gascon M, Casas M, Morales E, Valvi D, Ballesteros-Gomez A, Luque N, et al. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates and childhood respiratory tract infections and allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;2:370–8.
Adibi JJ, Whyatt RM, Hauser R, Bhat HK, Davis BJ, Calafat AM, et al. Transcriptional biomarkers of steroidogenesis and trophoblast differentiation in the placenta in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;2:291–6.
Meruvu S, Zhang J, Bedi YS, Choudhury M. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis through miR-16 in human first trimester placental cell line HTR-8/SVneo. Toxicol in Vitro. 2016;31:C:35–42.
Tetz LM, Cheng AA, Korte CS, Giese RW, Wang P, Harris C, et al. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;1:47–54.
Rosenfeld CS. Sex-specific placental responses in fetal development. Endocrinology. 2015;10:3422–34.
Muralimanoharan S, Gao X, Weintraub S, Myatt L, Maloyan A. Sexual dimorphism in activation of placental autophagy in obese women with evidence for fetal programming from a placenta-specific mouse model. Autophagy. 2016;5:752–69.
Saif Z, Hodyl NA, Hobbs E, Tuck AR, Butler MS, Osei-Kumah A, et al. The human placenta expresses multiple glucocorticoid receptor isoforms that are altered by fetal sex, growth restriction and maternal asthma. Placenta. 2014;4:260–8.
Adibi JJ, Lee MK, Naimi AI, Barrett E, Nguyen RH, Sathyanarayana S, et al. Human chorionic gonadotropin partially mediates phthalate association with male and female anogenital distance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;9:E1216–24.
Jauniaux E, Poston L, Burton GJ. Placental-related diseases of pregnancy: Involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution. Hum Reprod Update. 2006;6:747–55.
Huhtaniemi IT, Korenbrot CC, Jaffe RB. HCG binding and stimulation of testosterone biosynthesis in the human fetal testis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1977;5:963–7.
Factor-Litvak P, Insel B, Calafat AM, Liu X, Perera F, Rauh VA, et al. Persistent associations between maternal prenatal exposure to phthalates on child IQ at Age 7 years. PLoS One. 2014;12:e114003.
Whyatt RM, Liu X, Rauh VA, Calafat AM, Just AC, Hoepner L, et al. Maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and child mental, psychomotor, and behavioral development at 3 years of age. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;2:290–5.
Whyatt RM, Perzanowski MS, Just AC, Rundle AG, Donohue KM, Calafat AM, et al. Asthma in inner-city children at 5–11 years of age and prenatal exposure to phthalates: the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health Cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;10:1141–6.
Buckley JP, Engel SM, Braun JM, Whyatt RM, Daniels JL, Mendez MA, et al. Prenatal phthalate exposures and body mass index among 4-to 7-year-old children: a pooled analysis. Epidemiology. 2016;3:449–58.
Maresca MM, Hoepner LA, Hassoun A, Oberfield SE, Mooney SJ, Calafat AM, et al. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and childhood body size in an urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 2016;4:514–20.
Detmar J, Rennie MY, Whiteley KJ, Qu D, Taniuchi Y, Shang X, et al. Fetal growth restriction triggered by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is associated with altered placental vasculature and AhR-dependent changes in cell death. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;2:E519–30.
Tancrede S, Bujold E, Giguere Y, Renald MH, Girouard J, Forest JC. Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP and hCG as markers of preterm and term adverse pregnancy outcomes. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015;2:111–6.
Zhang M, Muralimanoharan S, Wortman AC, Mendelson CR. Primate-specific miR-515 family members inhibit key genes in human trophoblast differentiation and are upregulated in preeclampsia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016.
Ohkuchi A, Ishibashi O, Hirashima C, Takahashi K, Matsubara S, Takizawa T, et al. Plasma level of hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 1 in the second trimester is an independent risk factor for predicting preeclampsia after adjusting for the effects of mean blood pressure, bilateral notching and plasma level of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1/placental growth factor ratio. Hypertens Res. 2012;12:1152–8.
Holdsworth-Carson SJ, Lim R, Mitton A, Whitehead C, Rice GE, Permezel M, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are altered in pathologies of the human placenta: gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia. Placenta. 2010;3:222–9.
Larque E, Demmelmair H, Gil-Sanchez A, Prieto-Sanchez MT, Blanco JE, Pagan A, et al. Placental transfer of fatty acids and fetal implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;6(Suppl):1908S–13.
Whyatt RM, Adibi JJ, Calafat AM, Camann DE, Rauh V, Bhat HK, et al. Prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure and length of gestation among an inner-city cohort. Pediatrics. 2009;6:e1213–20.
Talge NM, Mudd LM, Sikorskii A, Basso O. United states birth weight reference corrected for implausible gestational Age estimates. Pediatrics. 2014;5:844–53.
Adibi JJ, Hauser R, Williams PL, Whyatt RM, Thaker HM, Nelson H, et al. Placental biomarkers of phthalate effects on mRNA transcription: application in epidemiologic research. Environ Health. 2009;8:20.
Pidoux G, Gerbaud P, Laurendeau I, Guibourdenche J, Bertin G, Vidaud M, et al. Large variability of trophoblast gene expression within and between human normal term placentae. Placenta. 2004;5:469–73.
Schaiff WT, Bildirici I, Cheong M, Chern PL, Nelson DM, Sadovsky Y. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and retinoid X receptor signaling regulate fatty acid uptake by primary human placental trophoblasts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;7:4267–75.
Bhat HK, Epelboym I. Quantitative analysis of total mitochondrial DNA: competitive polymerase chain reaction versus real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2004;4:180–6.
Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Reidy JA, Earl Gray L, Samandar E, Preau JL, et al. Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di-n-octyl phthalate. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006;3–4:215–27.
Koch HM, Christensen KLY, Harth V, Lorber M, Brüning T. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolism in a human volunteer after single oral doses. Arch Toxicol. 2012;12:1829–39.
Kato K, Silva MJ, Needham LL, Calafat AM. Determination of total phthalates in urine by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005;2:355–60.
Lorber M, Angerer J, Koch HM. A simple pharmacokinetic model to characterize exposure of Americans to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010;1:38–53.
Yaghjyan L, Carlsson NP, Ghita GL, Chang SH. Associations of individual characteristics and lifestyle factors with metabolism of di–2-ethylhexyl phthalate in NHANES 2001–2012. Environ Res. 2016;149:23–31.
Barr DB, Wilder LC, Caudill SP, Gonzalez AJ, Needham LL, Pirkle JL. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;2:192–200.
Verbeke G, Molenberghs G. Linear mixed models for longitudinal data. New York: Springer; 2000.
Kapetanovic S, Griner R, Zeldow B, Nichols S, Leister E, Gelbard HA, et al. Biomarkers and neurodevelopment in perinatally HIV-infected or exposed youth: a structural equation model analysis. AIDS. 2014;3:355–64.
Montiel JF, Kaune H, Maliqueo M. Maternal-fetal unit interactions and eutherian neocortical development and evolution. Front Neuroanat. 2013;7:22.
Filicori M, Fazleabas AT, Huhtaniemi I, Licht P, Rao Ch V, Tesarik J, et al. Novel concepts of human chorionic gonadotropin: reproductive system interactions and potential in the management of infertility. Fertil Steril. 2005;2:275–84.
Cooperstock M, Campbell J. Excess males in preterm birth: interactions with gestational age, race, and multiple birth. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;2:189–93.
Murji A, Proctor LK, Paterson AD, Chitayat D, Weksberg R, Kingdom J. Male sex bias in placental dysfunction. Am J Med Genet A. 2012;4:779–83.
Leonetti C, Butt CM, Hoffman K, Hammel SC, Miranda ML, Stapleton HM. Brominated flame retardants in placental tissues: associations with infant sex and thyroid hormone endpoints. Environ Health. 2016;1:113.
Cantonwine DE, Meeker JD, Ferguson KK, Mukherjee B, Hauser R, Mcelrath TF. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol a and phthalate metabolites measured during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. Environ Health Perspect. 2016;10:1651–5.
Grün F, Blumberg B. Perturbed nuclear receptor signaling by environmental obesogens as emerging factors in the obesity crisis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2007;2:161–71.
Xu Y, Knipp GT, Cook TJ. Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate and its metabolites on the lipid profiling in rat HRP-1 trophoblast cells. Arch Toxicol. 2006;5:293–8.
James-Todd T, Stahlhut R, Meeker JD, Powell S-G, Hauser R, Huang T, et al. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and diabetes among women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;9:1307–13.
Grun F, Watanabe H, Zamanian Z, Maeda L, Arima K, Cubacha R, et al. Endocrine-disrupting organotin compounds are potent inducers of adipogenesis in vertebrates. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;9:2141–55.
Ashley-Martin J, Dodds L, Arbuckle TE, Ettinger AS, Shapiro GD, Fisher M, et al. A birth cohort study to investigate the association between prenatal phthalate and bisphenol A exposures and fetal markers of metabolic dysfunction. Environ Health. 2014;13:84.
Yoon JC, Chickering TW, Rosen ED, Dussault B, Qin Y, Soukas A, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma target gene encoding a novel angiopoietin-related protein associated with adipose differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;14:5343–9.
Blount BC, Silva MJ, Caudill SP, Needham LL, Pirkle JL, Sampson EJ, et al. Levels of seven urinary phthalate metabolites in a human reference population. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;10:979–82.
Barr DB, Silva MJ, Kato K, Reidy JA, Malek NA, Hurtz D, et al. Assessing human exposure to phthalates using monoesters and their oxidized metabolites as biomarkers. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;9:1148–51.
Hakkola J, Pelkonen O, Pasanen M, Raunio H. Xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in the human feto-placental unit: role in intrauterine toxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1998;1:35–72.
Ferguson KK, McElrath TF, Ko YA, Mukherjee B, Meeker JD. Variability in urinary phthalate metabolite levels across pregnancy and sensitive windows of exposure for the risk of preterm birth. Environ Int. 2014;70:118–24.